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Stridulations reveal cryptic speciation in neotropical sympatric ants.

Ferreira RS, Poteaux C, Delabie JH, Fresneau D, Rybak F - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: In order to understand the potential of acoustics and to improve consistency in the conclusions by comparing different approaches, phylogenetic relationships of all the morphs considered were assessed by the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b.Congruent morphological, acoustic and genetic results constitute sufficient evidence to propose each morph studied here as a valid new species, suggesting that P. apicalis is a complex of at least 6 to 9 species, even if they present different levels of divergence.Finally, our results highlight that ant stridulations may be much more informative than hitherto thought, as much for ant communication as for integrative taxonomists.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire d'Ethologie Expérimentale et Comparée, LEEC EA 4443, Université Paris 13, Villetaneuse, France. ronara@leec.univ-paris13.fr

ABSTRACT
The taxonomic challenge posed by cryptic species underlines the importance of using multiple criteria in species delimitation. In the current paper we tested the use of acoustic analysis as a tool to assess the real diversity in a cryptic species complex of Neotropical ants. In order to understand the potential of acoustics and to improve consistency in the conclusions by comparing different approaches, phylogenetic relationships of all the morphs considered were assessed by the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b. We observed that each of the cryptic morph studied presents a morphologically distinct stridulatory organ and that all sympatric morphs produce distinctive stridulations. This is the first evidence of such a degree of specialization in the acoustic organ and signals in ants, which suggests that stridulations may be among the cues used by these ants during inter-specific interactions. Mitochondrial DNA variation corroborated the acoustic differences observed, confirming acoustics as a helpful tool to determine cryptic species in this group of ants, and possibly in stridulating ants in general. Congruent morphological, acoustic and genetic results constitute sufficient evidence to propose each morph studied here as a valid new species, suggesting that P. apicalis is a complex of at least 6 to 9 species, even if they present different levels of divergence. Finally, our results highlight that ant stridulations may be much more informative than hitherto thought, as much for ant communication as for integrative taxonomists.

Show MeSH
Discriminant function analysis of the stridulatory file morphometry of the P. apicalis species complex.PVE: P. verenae, PAP: P. apicalis. Ellipses are 95% confidence intervals around centroids.
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pone-0015363-g003: Discriminant function analysis of the stridulatory file morphometry of the P. apicalis species complex.PVE: P. verenae, PAP: P. apicalis. Ellipses are 95% confidence intervals around centroids.

Mentions: The discriminant function analysis of all morphometric parameters considered for the stridulatory file clearly separates all studied morphs (Wilk's λ = 0.005, F32,108 = 10.712, p<0.001; Figure 3, Table 1). The file (see supplementary Figure S6) can vary in length (Figures 4 and 5.a), maximal and quartile widths (Figure 4), medial and distal inter-ridge distances (Figure 6) and number of ridges between morphs (Figure 5.b). These differences are combined in a distinctive way within each morph, which allows a 97.5% correct classification rate of all individuals based on the overall pattern of the stridulatory file.


Stridulations reveal cryptic speciation in neotropical sympatric ants.

Ferreira RS, Poteaux C, Delabie JH, Fresneau D, Rybak F - PLoS ONE (2010)

Discriminant function analysis of the stridulatory file morphometry of the P. apicalis species complex.PVE: P. verenae, PAP: P. apicalis. Ellipses are 95% confidence intervals around centroids.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3008743&req=5

pone-0015363-g003: Discriminant function analysis of the stridulatory file morphometry of the P. apicalis species complex.PVE: P. verenae, PAP: P. apicalis. Ellipses are 95% confidence intervals around centroids.
Mentions: The discriminant function analysis of all morphometric parameters considered for the stridulatory file clearly separates all studied morphs (Wilk's λ = 0.005, F32,108 = 10.712, p<0.001; Figure 3, Table 1). The file (see supplementary Figure S6) can vary in length (Figures 4 and 5.a), maximal and quartile widths (Figure 4), medial and distal inter-ridge distances (Figure 6) and number of ridges between morphs (Figure 5.b). These differences are combined in a distinctive way within each morph, which allows a 97.5% correct classification rate of all individuals based on the overall pattern of the stridulatory file.

Bottom Line: In order to understand the potential of acoustics and to improve consistency in the conclusions by comparing different approaches, phylogenetic relationships of all the morphs considered were assessed by the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b.Congruent morphological, acoustic and genetic results constitute sufficient evidence to propose each morph studied here as a valid new species, suggesting that P. apicalis is a complex of at least 6 to 9 species, even if they present different levels of divergence.Finally, our results highlight that ant stridulations may be much more informative than hitherto thought, as much for ant communication as for integrative taxonomists.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire d'Ethologie Expérimentale et Comparée, LEEC EA 4443, Université Paris 13, Villetaneuse, France. ronara@leec.univ-paris13.fr

ABSTRACT
The taxonomic challenge posed by cryptic species underlines the importance of using multiple criteria in species delimitation. In the current paper we tested the use of acoustic analysis as a tool to assess the real diversity in a cryptic species complex of Neotropical ants. In order to understand the potential of acoustics and to improve consistency in the conclusions by comparing different approaches, phylogenetic relationships of all the morphs considered were assessed by the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b. We observed that each of the cryptic morph studied presents a morphologically distinct stridulatory organ and that all sympatric morphs produce distinctive stridulations. This is the first evidence of such a degree of specialization in the acoustic organ and signals in ants, which suggests that stridulations may be among the cues used by these ants during inter-specific interactions. Mitochondrial DNA variation corroborated the acoustic differences observed, confirming acoustics as a helpful tool to determine cryptic species in this group of ants, and possibly in stridulating ants in general. Congruent morphological, acoustic and genetic results constitute sufficient evidence to propose each morph studied here as a valid new species, suggesting that P. apicalis is a complex of at least 6 to 9 species, even if they present different levels of divergence. Finally, our results highlight that ant stridulations may be much more informative than hitherto thought, as much for ant communication as for integrative taxonomists.

Show MeSH