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RNA viruses in hymenopteran pollinators: evidence of inter-Taxa virus transmission via pollen and potential impact on non-Apis hymenopteran species.

Singh R, Levitt AL, Rajotte EG, Holmes EC, Ostiguy N, Vanengelsdorp D, Lipkin WI, Depamphilis CW, Toth AL, Cox-Foster DL - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Although overall pollinator populations have declined over the last couple of decades, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) malady, colony collapse disorder (CCD), has caused major concern in the agricultural community.This finding further expands the viral host range and implies a possible deeper impact on the health of our ecosystem.Notably, in cases where honey bee apiaries affected by CCD harbored honey bees with Israeli Acute Paralysis virus (IAPV), nearby non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators also had IAPV, while those near apiaries without IAPV did not.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Although overall pollinator populations have declined over the last couple of decades, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) malady, colony collapse disorder (CCD), has caused major concern in the agricultural community. Among honey bee pathogens, RNA viruses are emerging as a serious threat and are suspected as major contributors to CCD. Recent detection of these viral species in bumble bees suggests a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. It is therefore vital to study the ecology and epidemiology of these viruses in the hymenopteran pollinator community as a whole. We studied the viral distribution in honey bees, in their pollen loads, and in other non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators collected from flowering plants in Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois in the United States. Viruses in the samples were detected using reverse transcriptase-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. For the first time, we report the molecular detection of picorna-like RNA viruses (deformed wing virus, sacbrood virus and black queen cell virus) in pollen pellets collected directly from forager bees. Pollen pellets from several uninfected forager bees were detected with virus, indicating that pollen itself may harbor viruses. The viruses in the pollen and honey stored in the hive were demonstrated to be infective, with the queen becoming infected and laying infected eggs after these virus-contaminated foods were given to virus-free colonies. These viruses were detected in eleven other non-Apis hymenopteran species, ranging from many solitary bees to bumble bees and wasps. This finding further expands the viral host range and implies a possible deeper impact on the health of our ecosystem. Phylogenetic analyses support that these viruses are disseminating freely among the pollinators via the flower pollen itself. Notably, in cases where honey bee apiaries affected by CCD harbored honey bees with Israeli Acute Paralysis virus (IAPV), nearby non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators also had IAPV, while those near apiaries without IAPV did not. In containment greenhouse experiments, IAPV moved from infected honey bees to bumble bees and from infected bumble bees to honey bees within a week, demonstrating that the viruses could be transmitted from one species to another. This study adds to our present understanding of virus epidemiology and may help explain bee disease patterns and pollinator population decline in general.

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Proportion of virus species detected in 65 honey bee pollen foragers versus their pollen pellets.For both the foragers and their pollen pellets, Venn diagrams depict the percentage of DWV (Deformed wing virus in red), SBV (Sacbrood virus in yellow), BQCV (Black queen cell virus in blue), or virus-free samples (white). Overlapping colored circles indicate samples wherein more than one virus was detected. Total percentages of these viruses in either foragers or pollen pellets are given in the middle of the figure. N = sample size.
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pone-0014357-g002: Proportion of virus species detected in 65 honey bee pollen foragers versus their pollen pellets.For both the foragers and their pollen pellets, Venn diagrams depict the percentage of DWV (Deformed wing virus in red), SBV (Sacbrood virus in yellow), BQCV (Black queen cell virus in blue), or virus-free samples (white). Overlapping colored circles indicate samples wherein more than one virus was detected. Total percentages of these viruses in either foragers or pollen pellets are given in the middle of the figure. N = sample size.

Mentions: In an expanded collection of 65 honey bee pollen foragers in 2007, all foragers were infected with at least one virus with most having multiple infections. A large number of pollen pellets also were positive for one or more virus species. BQCV was the most prevalent species detected in the honey bee samples (98.5%). In comparison, only 30.8% pollen pellets were positive for this virus (Figure 2, Table 1). SBV was less common with only 24.6% bees and 3.1% pollen pellets detected positive. The incidence of DWV was relatively high, and this virus was almost equally detected among foragers (61.5%) and their pollen loads (58.5%). All forager honey bees and their pollen loads tested negative for IAPV and KBV. DWV was the most commonly detected virus in pollen loads of honey bees. More importantly, there were forager/pollen pellet pairs where the uninfected forager was carrying pollen loads positive either for DWV (13.9%) or SBV (1.5%) (Table 1, Figure 2).


RNA viruses in hymenopteran pollinators: evidence of inter-Taxa virus transmission via pollen and potential impact on non-Apis hymenopteran species.

Singh R, Levitt AL, Rajotte EG, Holmes EC, Ostiguy N, Vanengelsdorp D, Lipkin WI, Depamphilis CW, Toth AL, Cox-Foster DL - PLoS ONE (2010)

Proportion of virus species detected in 65 honey bee pollen foragers versus their pollen pellets.For both the foragers and their pollen pellets, Venn diagrams depict the percentage of DWV (Deformed wing virus in red), SBV (Sacbrood virus in yellow), BQCV (Black queen cell virus in blue), or virus-free samples (white). Overlapping colored circles indicate samples wherein more than one virus was detected. Total percentages of these viruses in either foragers or pollen pellets are given in the middle of the figure. N = sample size.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3008715&req=5

pone-0014357-g002: Proportion of virus species detected in 65 honey bee pollen foragers versus their pollen pellets.For both the foragers and their pollen pellets, Venn diagrams depict the percentage of DWV (Deformed wing virus in red), SBV (Sacbrood virus in yellow), BQCV (Black queen cell virus in blue), or virus-free samples (white). Overlapping colored circles indicate samples wherein more than one virus was detected. Total percentages of these viruses in either foragers or pollen pellets are given in the middle of the figure. N = sample size.
Mentions: In an expanded collection of 65 honey bee pollen foragers in 2007, all foragers were infected with at least one virus with most having multiple infections. A large number of pollen pellets also were positive for one or more virus species. BQCV was the most prevalent species detected in the honey bee samples (98.5%). In comparison, only 30.8% pollen pellets were positive for this virus (Figure 2, Table 1). SBV was less common with only 24.6% bees and 3.1% pollen pellets detected positive. The incidence of DWV was relatively high, and this virus was almost equally detected among foragers (61.5%) and their pollen loads (58.5%). All forager honey bees and their pollen loads tested negative for IAPV and KBV. DWV was the most commonly detected virus in pollen loads of honey bees. More importantly, there were forager/pollen pellet pairs where the uninfected forager was carrying pollen loads positive either for DWV (13.9%) or SBV (1.5%) (Table 1, Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Although overall pollinator populations have declined over the last couple of decades, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) malady, colony collapse disorder (CCD), has caused major concern in the agricultural community.This finding further expands the viral host range and implies a possible deeper impact on the health of our ecosystem.Notably, in cases where honey bee apiaries affected by CCD harbored honey bees with Israeli Acute Paralysis virus (IAPV), nearby non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators also had IAPV, while those near apiaries without IAPV did not.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Although overall pollinator populations have declined over the last couple of decades, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) malady, colony collapse disorder (CCD), has caused major concern in the agricultural community. Among honey bee pathogens, RNA viruses are emerging as a serious threat and are suspected as major contributors to CCD. Recent detection of these viral species in bumble bees suggests a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. It is therefore vital to study the ecology and epidemiology of these viruses in the hymenopteran pollinator community as a whole. We studied the viral distribution in honey bees, in their pollen loads, and in other non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators collected from flowering plants in Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois in the United States. Viruses in the samples were detected using reverse transcriptase-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. For the first time, we report the molecular detection of picorna-like RNA viruses (deformed wing virus, sacbrood virus and black queen cell virus) in pollen pellets collected directly from forager bees. Pollen pellets from several uninfected forager bees were detected with virus, indicating that pollen itself may harbor viruses. The viruses in the pollen and honey stored in the hive were demonstrated to be infective, with the queen becoming infected and laying infected eggs after these virus-contaminated foods were given to virus-free colonies. These viruses were detected in eleven other non-Apis hymenopteran species, ranging from many solitary bees to bumble bees and wasps. This finding further expands the viral host range and implies a possible deeper impact on the health of our ecosystem. Phylogenetic analyses support that these viruses are disseminating freely among the pollinators via the flower pollen itself. Notably, in cases where honey bee apiaries affected by CCD harbored honey bees with Israeli Acute Paralysis virus (IAPV), nearby non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators also had IAPV, while those near apiaries without IAPV did not. In containment greenhouse experiments, IAPV moved from infected honey bees to bumble bees and from infected bumble bees to honey bees within a week, demonstrating that the viruses could be transmitted from one species to another. This study adds to our present understanding of virus epidemiology and may help explain bee disease patterns and pollinator population decline in general.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus