Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review.
Bottom Line: Of these biomarkers, 13 were found to have an association with outcome in at least one study.However, investigators are yet to identify a biomarker that has the ability to consistently predict outcome in this disease.Further studies are needed to elucidate whether these candidate biomarkers demonstrate their optimum value when they serve as targets for new therapeutic strategies.
Affiliation: Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Imperial College London, St Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK. email@example.comShow MeSH
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Mentions: Using the search methods described above, a total of 179 articles were identified. Of these, 73 were initially excluded as they were not studies of anal cancer. Eight articles were not related to the study of biomarkers. A further 30 articles were also excluded by abstract review; 13 of these were review articles and 17 were case reports. Of the remaining 68 references searched in full, 11 studies were excluded as they included the premalignant form, AIN, with no discrimination of results between the two disease groups. Another 17 studies were excluded as they combined data from human cancers of different anatomical locations (including anal carcinoma) with no breakdown of results for the various cancer types. Sixteen studies of biomarkers in anal cancer were excluded as correlation with prognosis was not assessed. Finally, three studies failed to meet the inclusion criteria, as the primary form of treatment in these studies was radical surgery rather than chemoradiation. Ultimately, 21 studies remained for full inclusion in this literature review (Figure 1) (Fontana et al, 1991; Tanum et al, 1992; Goldman et al, 1993; Holm and Tanum, 1996; Tanum and Holm, 1996; Allal et al, 1998, 2003, 2004; Grabenbauer et al, 1998; Bonin et al, 1999; Indinnimeo et al, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2001; Wong et al, 1999; Holm et al, 2001; Le et al, 2005; Alvarez et al, 2006; Nilsson et al, 2006; Bruland et al, 2008; Ajani et al, 2009).
Affiliation: Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Imperial College London, St Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org