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Symbiodinium-invertebrate symbioses and the role of metabolomics.

Gordon BR, Leggat W - Mar Drugs (2010)

Bottom Line: Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship.We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research.Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AIMS@JCU, Australian Institute of Marine Science, School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia. benjamin.gordon@jcu.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Symbioses play an important role within the marine environment. Among the most well known of these symbioses is that between coral and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium spp. Understanding the metabolic relationships between the host and the symbiont is of the utmost importance in order to gain insight into how this symbiosis may be disrupted due to environmental stressors. Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship. We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research. Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses.

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Molecular structure of zooxanthellamide-A (17).
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f4-marinedrugs-08-02546: Molecular structure of zooxanthellamide-A (17).

Mentions: A number of compounds related to ZTs have also been isolated from Symbiodinium. Zooxanthellamide A (17, Scheme 3) was purified from free-living zooxanthellae found in a Hawaiian tidal pool [44]. Zooxanthellamide A has a smaller molecular weight than that of ZTs and the structure differs considerably. Unlike ZTs, zooxanthellamide A does not possess bisepoxide and exomethylene. There is a pair of both the amide and sulfate groups in zooxanthellamide A, whereas these only exist as lone groups in ZTs. These similarities suggest that ZTs and zooxanthellamide A arise from similar biosynthetic pathways. Subsequently a δ-lactone derivative of zooxanthellamide A was found, zooxanthellamide B [45]. These two compounds led Onodera et al. to propose that zooxanthellamides were a novel family of large polyhydroxy metabolites of zooxanthellae due in fact to their significant structural differences compared to ZTs. This showed that the polyhydroxy metabolism of zooxanthellae is in fact quite diverse, however, the biosynthetic pathway has yet to be identified.


Symbiodinium-invertebrate symbioses and the role of metabolomics.

Gordon BR, Leggat W - Mar Drugs (2010)

Molecular structure of zooxanthellamide-A (17).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2992991&req=5

f4-marinedrugs-08-02546: Molecular structure of zooxanthellamide-A (17).
Mentions: A number of compounds related to ZTs have also been isolated from Symbiodinium. Zooxanthellamide A (17, Scheme 3) was purified from free-living zooxanthellae found in a Hawaiian tidal pool [44]. Zooxanthellamide A has a smaller molecular weight than that of ZTs and the structure differs considerably. Unlike ZTs, zooxanthellamide A does not possess bisepoxide and exomethylene. There is a pair of both the amide and sulfate groups in zooxanthellamide A, whereas these only exist as lone groups in ZTs. These similarities suggest that ZTs and zooxanthellamide A arise from similar biosynthetic pathways. Subsequently a δ-lactone derivative of zooxanthellamide A was found, zooxanthellamide B [45]. These two compounds led Onodera et al. to propose that zooxanthellamides were a novel family of large polyhydroxy metabolites of zooxanthellae due in fact to their significant structural differences compared to ZTs. This showed that the polyhydroxy metabolism of zooxanthellae is in fact quite diverse, however, the biosynthetic pathway has yet to be identified.

Bottom Line: Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship.We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research.Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AIMS@JCU, Australian Institute of Marine Science, School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia. benjamin.gordon@jcu.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Symbioses play an important role within the marine environment. Among the most well known of these symbioses is that between coral and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium spp. Understanding the metabolic relationships between the host and the symbiont is of the utmost importance in order to gain insight into how this symbiosis may be disrupted due to environmental stressors. Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship. We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research. Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses.

Show MeSH