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Symbiodinium-invertebrate symbioses and the role of metabolomics.

Gordon BR, Leggat W - Mar Drugs (2010)

Bottom Line: Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship.We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research.Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AIMS@JCU, Australian Institute of Marine Science, School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia. benjamin.gordon@jcu.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Symbioses play an important role within the marine environment. Among the most well known of these symbioses is that between coral and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium spp. Understanding the metabolic relationships between the host and the symbiont is of the utmost importance in order to gain insight into how this symbiosis may be disrupted due to environmental stressors. Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship. We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research. Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses.

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Molecular structures of some common mycosporine-like amino acids in marine organisms.
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f2-marinedrugs-08-02546: Molecular structures of some common mycosporine-like amino acids in marine organisms.

Mentions: In addition to driving photosynthesis, high light levels expose the host and symbiont to damaging UV radiation. One particular defense against UV is the production of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). These compounds (1–12 in Scheme 1) are characterized by a cyclohexanone or cyclohexenimine chromophore conjugated with a nitrogen substituent of an amino acid and absorb UV radiation without any further photochemical reactions [73]. The source (host vs. symbiont) of these compounds is not clear and concentrations in coral tissue can vary according to fluctuations in light levels. For example, research performed by Yakovleva and Hidaka [74] in 2004 was able to show that freshly isolated Symbiodinum contained no MAAs yet they were distributed throughout the animal tissue. In contrast, work by Banaszak et al. [75] in 2000 showed that cultured Symbiodinium cells of clade A did produce MAAs, but not cells from from clades B and C. Increases of up to two fold at midday have been demonstrated for discrete MAA species, in particular the concentration of imino-MAA species varied in response to light while mycosporine-glycine (1) did not [74]. Some MAAs also have the potential to act as free radical scavengers [46]. For example, the research by Dunlap and Yamamoto [46] of small-molecule marine antioxidants elucidated six common MAAs from four different marine species. The MAAs isolated included five cyclohexenimine MAAs (shinorine 9, porphyra-334 10, palythine 3, asterina-330 5 and palythinol 6) and a single cyclohexanone MAA (mycosporine-glycine 1). Upon studying the oxidation properties of each of these MAAs they found that the oxidative robustness of imino-MAAs was in keeping with their sunscreen properties and thus had no definitive antioxidant activity, whereas mycosporine-glycine did have moderate antioxidant activity.


Symbiodinium-invertebrate symbioses and the role of metabolomics.

Gordon BR, Leggat W - Mar Drugs (2010)

Molecular structures of some common mycosporine-like amino acids in marine organisms.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2992991&req=5

f2-marinedrugs-08-02546: Molecular structures of some common mycosporine-like amino acids in marine organisms.
Mentions: In addition to driving photosynthesis, high light levels expose the host and symbiont to damaging UV radiation. One particular defense against UV is the production of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). These compounds (1–12 in Scheme 1) are characterized by a cyclohexanone or cyclohexenimine chromophore conjugated with a nitrogen substituent of an amino acid and absorb UV radiation without any further photochemical reactions [73]. The source (host vs. symbiont) of these compounds is not clear and concentrations in coral tissue can vary according to fluctuations in light levels. For example, research performed by Yakovleva and Hidaka [74] in 2004 was able to show that freshly isolated Symbiodinum contained no MAAs yet they were distributed throughout the animal tissue. In contrast, work by Banaszak et al. [75] in 2000 showed that cultured Symbiodinium cells of clade A did produce MAAs, but not cells from from clades B and C. Increases of up to two fold at midday have been demonstrated for discrete MAA species, in particular the concentration of imino-MAA species varied in response to light while mycosporine-glycine (1) did not [74]. Some MAAs also have the potential to act as free radical scavengers [46]. For example, the research by Dunlap and Yamamoto [46] of small-molecule marine antioxidants elucidated six common MAAs from four different marine species. The MAAs isolated included five cyclohexenimine MAAs (shinorine 9, porphyra-334 10, palythine 3, asterina-330 5 and palythinol 6) and a single cyclohexanone MAA (mycosporine-glycine 1). Upon studying the oxidation properties of each of these MAAs they found that the oxidative robustness of imino-MAAs was in keeping with their sunscreen properties and thus had no definitive antioxidant activity, whereas mycosporine-glycine did have moderate antioxidant activity.

Bottom Line: Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship.We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research.Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AIMS@JCU, Australian Institute of Marine Science, School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia. benjamin.gordon@jcu.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Symbioses play an important role within the marine environment. Among the most well known of these symbioses is that between coral and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium spp. Understanding the metabolic relationships between the host and the symbiont is of the utmost importance in order to gain insight into how this symbiosis may be disrupted due to environmental stressors. Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship. We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research. Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses.

Show MeSH