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Measuring normal ocular torsion and its variation by fundus photography in children between 5-15 years of age.

Jethani J, Seethapathy G, Purohit J, Shah D - Indian J Ophthalmol (2010 Sep-Oct)

Bottom Line: The cycloplegic refraction was done and compared.The difference between the RE and LE was statistically not significant (P=0.131) (mean 1.15 +/-1.39 degrees ).The difference observed in DFA measurement for eyes with various refractive errors were compared with DFA measurements for emmetropic eyes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dr. Thakorbhai V Patel Eye Institute, Salatwada, Baroda- 390 001, India.

ABSTRACT
Cycloposition has been measured by various methods; however, fundus photography is the most reliable method to evaluate the torsion objectively. We did a prospective study to find out the disc foveal angle (DFA) and its variation in children without squint. We included 210 eyes of 105 children between the ages of 5-15 years. DFA was calculated using standard technique after taking a fundus photograph. The cycloplegic refraction was done and compared. The mean age was 10.6 +/- 2.5 years. Mean DFA in right eye (RE) was 6.49 +/- 3.25 degrees (0-13 degrees ) and in left eye (LE) was 5.80 +/- 3.29 degrees (0-12 degrees ). The difference between the RE and LE was statistically not significant (P=0.131) (mean 1.15 +/-1.39 degrees ). Mean DFA in emmetropic children was 6.1 degrees +/- 3.4 degrees (n=112 eyes). DFA varies widely in children. The difference observed in DFA measurement for eyes with various refractive errors were compared with DFA measurements for emmetropic eyes.

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Schematic diagram shows the disc foveal angle (DFA)
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Figure 0001: Schematic diagram shows the disc foveal angle (DFA)

Mentions: A total of 105 children (210 eyes) were included in the study. The patients (and /parents) were briefed about the procedure and appropriate consent obtained for fundus photography. The age, sex and refractive errors of all patients were noted. We excluded all the patients with hazy media, abnormal muscle balance, retinal pathology and any manifest deviation. Photographic documentation of the ocular fundi of our patients was done by one of the authors (JP) using a TRC- 50DX (Topcon, Japan) fundus camera taking care that the subject’s head was well aligned - the side marks and chin rest were taken as a guide. Wide-field (50°) fundus photographs were taken. Children who were not cooperative or if the authors found were not able to keep their head straight were excluded from the study. Photographs were taken through the dilated pupil after instilling tropicamide 1% eye drops. The DFA was calculated from a well-focused single still photograph using IMAGEnet software (Topcon, Japan) and a protractor. To obtain the measurement of DFA, two lines were drawn; one straight line (horizontal meridian) passing through the center of the disc [Fig. 1] (AD) and another line passing through the point D (center of the disc) and the Fovea (F) (DF). The angle between the fovea and the geometric centre of the disc (between the lines AD and DF) was measured in order to obtain the DFA (< ADF) [Fig. 1].


Measuring normal ocular torsion and its variation by fundus photography in children between 5-15 years of age.

Jethani J, Seethapathy G, Purohit J, Shah D - Indian J Ophthalmol (2010 Sep-Oct)

Schematic diagram shows the disc foveal angle (DFA)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2992918&req=5

Figure 0001: Schematic diagram shows the disc foveal angle (DFA)
Mentions: A total of 105 children (210 eyes) were included in the study. The patients (and /parents) were briefed about the procedure and appropriate consent obtained for fundus photography. The age, sex and refractive errors of all patients were noted. We excluded all the patients with hazy media, abnormal muscle balance, retinal pathology and any manifest deviation. Photographic documentation of the ocular fundi of our patients was done by one of the authors (JP) using a TRC- 50DX (Topcon, Japan) fundus camera taking care that the subject’s head was well aligned - the side marks and chin rest were taken as a guide. Wide-field (50°) fundus photographs were taken. Children who were not cooperative or if the authors found were not able to keep their head straight were excluded from the study. Photographs were taken through the dilated pupil after instilling tropicamide 1% eye drops. The DFA was calculated from a well-focused single still photograph using IMAGEnet software (Topcon, Japan) and a protractor. To obtain the measurement of DFA, two lines were drawn; one straight line (horizontal meridian) passing through the center of the disc [Fig. 1] (AD) and another line passing through the point D (center of the disc) and the Fovea (F) (DF). The angle between the fovea and the geometric centre of the disc (between the lines AD and DF) was measured in order to obtain the DFA (< ADF) [Fig. 1].

Bottom Line: The cycloplegic refraction was done and compared.The difference between the RE and LE was statistically not significant (P=0.131) (mean 1.15 +/-1.39 degrees ).The difference observed in DFA measurement for eyes with various refractive errors were compared with DFA measurements for emmetropic eyes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dr. Thakorbhai V Patel Eye Institute, Salatwada, Baroda- 390 001, India.

ABSTRACT
Cycloposition has been measured by various methods; however, fundus photography is the most reliable method to evaluate the torsion objectively. We did a prospective study to find out the disc foveal angle (DFA) and its variation in children without squint. We included 210 eyes of 105 children between the ages of 5-15 years. DFA was calculated using standard technique after taking a fundus photograph. The cycloplegic refraction was done and compared. The mean age was 10.6 +/- 2.5 years. Mean DFA in right eye (RE) was 6.49 +/- 3.25 degrees (0-13 degrees ) and in left eye (LE) was 5.80 +/- 3.29 degrees (0-12 degrees ). The difference between the RE and LE was statistically not significant (P=0.131) (mean 1.15 +/-1.39 degrees ). Mean DFA in emmetropic children was 6.1 degrees +/- 3.4 degrees (n=112 eyes). DFA varies widely in children. The difference observed in DFA measurement for eyes with various refractive errors were compared with DFA measurements for emmetropic eyes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus