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Dementia in Swedish twins: predicting incident cases.

Gatz M, Reynolds CA, Finkel D, Pedersen NL, Walters E - Behav. Genet. (2010)

Bottom Line: Thirty same-sex twin pairs were identified in which both members were assessed at baseline and one twin subsequently developed dementia, at least 3 years subsequent to the baseline measurement, while the partner remained cognitively intact for at least three additional years.Eighteen of the 30 cases were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease.Baseline assessments, conducted when twins' average age was 70.6 (SD = 6.8), included a mailed questionnaire and in-person testing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1061, USA. gatz@usc.edu

ABSTRACT
Thirty same-sex twin pairs were identified in which both members were assessed at baseline and one twin subsequently developed dementia, at least 3 years subsequent to the baseline measurement, while the partner remained cognitively intact for at least three additional years. Eighteen of the 30 cases were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Baseline assessments, conducted when twins' average age was 70.6 (SD = 6.8), included a mailed questionnaire and in-person testing. Which twin would develop dementia was predicted by less favorable lipid values (higher apoB, ratio of apoB to apoA1, and total cholesterol), poorer grip strength, and-to a lesser extent-higher emotionality on the EAS Temperament Scale. Given the long preclinical period that characterizes Alzheimer's disease, these findings may suggest late life risk factors for dementia, or may reflect changes that are part of preclinical disease.

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Change over time from healthy aging to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some people’s course entails gradually moving to mild cognitive impairment and then possibly making the transition to AD. Other people continue on a course of healthy aging, showing only normal age-related changes in cognition. Figure from National Institute on Aging (2008, p. 29)
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Fig1: Change over time from healthy aging to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some people’s course entails gradually moving to mild cognitive impairment and then possibly making the transition to AD. Other people continue on a course of healthy aging, showing only normal age-related changes in cognition. Figure from National Institute on Aging (2008, p. 29)

Mentions: Dementia is the diagnostic term for a group of disorders entailing progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities sufficient to interfere with daily, social, and occupational functioning. Two main types of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Alzheimer’s disease, which accounts for up to two-thirds of all cases of dementia, is thought to result from a pathological cascade initiated by deposition in the brain of a protein called beta-amyloid (Hardy 2006). These deposits are associated with oxidative injury, inflammatory activity, and acetycholine deficits that lead to a loss of neurons and account for the cognitive and behavioral dysfunction that is observed clinically. For a summary of clinical and pathophysiological features of Alzheimer’s disease, see Cummings and Cole (2002). The onset of Alzheimer’s disease is insidious, with a long preclinical period, and the course is gradual. See Fig. 1.Fig. 1


Dementia in Swedish twins: predicting incident cases.

Gatz M, Reynolds CA, Finkel D, Pedersen NL, Walters E - Behav. Genet. (2010)

Change over time from healthy aging to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some people’s course entails gradually moving to mild cognitive impairment and then possibly making the transition to AD. Other people continue on a course of healthy aging, showing only normal age-related changes in cognition. Figure from National Institute on Aging (2008, p. 29)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2992847&req=5

Fig1: Change over time from healthy aging to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some people’s course entails gradually moving to mild cognitive impairment and then possibly making the transition to AD. Other people continue on a course of healthy aging, showing only normal age-related changes in cognition. Figure from National Institute on Aging (2008, p. 29)
Mentions: Dementia is the diagnostic term for a group of disorders entailing progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities sufficient to interfere with daily, social, and occupational functioning. Two main types of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Alzheimer’s disease, which accounts for up to two-thirds of all cases of dementia, is thought to result from a pathological cascade initiated by deposition in the brain of a protein called beta-amyloid (Hardy 2006). These deposits are associated with oxidative injury, inflammatory activity, and acetycholine deficits that lead to a loss of neurons and account for the cognitive and behavioral dysfunction that is observed clinically. For a summary of clinical and pathophysiological features of Alzheimer’s disease, see Cummings and Cole (2002). The onset of Alzheimer’s disease is insidious, with a long preclinical period, and the course is gradual. See Fig. 1.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Thirty same-sex twin pairs were identified in which both members were assessed at baseline and one twin subsequently developed dementia, at least 3 years subsequent to the baseline measurement, while the partner remained cognitively intact for at least three additional years.Eighteen of the 30 cases were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease.Baseline assessments, conducted when twins' average age was 70.6 (SD = 6.8), included a mailed questionnaire and in-person testing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1061, USA. gatz@usc.edu

ABSTRACT
Thirty same-sex twin pairs were identified in which both members were assessed at baseline and one twin subsequently developed dementia, at least 3 years subsequent to the baseline measurement, while the partner remained cognitively intact for at least three additional years. Eighteen of the 30 cases were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Baseline assessments, conducted when twins' average age was 70.6 (SD = 6.8), included a mailed questionnaire and in-person testing. Which twin would develop dementia was predicted by less favorable lipid values (higher apoB, ratio of apoB to apoA1, and total cholesterol), poorer grip strength, and-to a lesser extent-higher emotionality on the EAS Temperament Scale. Given the long preclinical period that characterizes Alzheimer's disease, these findings may suggest late life risk factors for dementia, or may reflect changes that are part of preclinical disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus