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Maternal antioxidant supplementation prevents adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed rats.

Sen S, Simmons RA - Diabetes (2010)

Bottom Line: Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth.Gene expression of proadipogenic and lipogenic genes was altered in fat tissue of rats at 2 weeks and 2 months of age.Restoration of the antioxidant balance during pregnancy in the Western diet-fed dam is associated with decreased adiposity in offspring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring.

Research design and methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at 4 weeks of age. Four groups of animals were studied: control chow (control); control + antioxidants (control+Aox); Western diet (Western); and Western diet + antioxidants (Western+Aox). The rats were mated at 12 to 14 weeks of age, and all pups were weaned onto control diet.

Results: Offspring from dams fed the Western diet had significantly increased adiposity as early as 2 weeks of age as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared with offspring of dams fed a control diet. Inflammation and oxidative stress were increased in preimplantation embryos, fetuses, and newborns of Western diet-fed rats. Gene expression of proadipogenic and lipogenic genes was altered in fat tissue of rats at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. The addition of an antioxidant supplement decreased adiposity and normalized glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS; Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play a key role in the development of increased adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed pregnant dams. Restoration of the antioxidant balance during pregnancy in the Western diet-fed dam is associated with decreased adiposity in offspring.

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Maternal antioxidant supplement normalizes gene expression in fat tissue from offspring of obese dams. Visceral fat tissue was harvested from 2-week-old (A) and 2-month-old (B) offspring and mRNA isolated as described in methods. Data shown are ± SEM; n = 4 litters for each group; *P < 0.05 Western diet versus control, control+Aox, and Western+Aox; **P < 0.05 versus Western+Aox versus Western diet.
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Figure 6: Maternal antioxidant supplement normalizes gene expression in fat tissue from offspring of obese dams. Visceral fat tissue was harvested from 2-week-old (A) and 2-month-old (B) offspring and mRNA isolated as described in methods. Data shown are ± SEM; n = 4 litters for each group; *P < 0.05 Western diet versus control, control+Aox, and Western+Aox; **P < 0.05 versus Western+Aox versus Western diet.

Mentions: There is a rapid and dramatic expansion of the adipose lineage that occurs during the first month of postnatal life in the rodent, and our data demonstrate that exposure to a Western diet during development accentuates this process. We found that mRNA levels of Pref1, Wisp2, and PPARγ were markedly elevated in fat tissues from 2-week-old and 2-month-old offspring of Western diet-fed dams compared with controls (Fig. 6A). Pref1 and Wisp2 maintain the adipocyte precursor cell in a committed but undifferentiated state. Interestingly, expression of BEST5, a gene that promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into bone (37), was markedly reduced in fat tissue of offspring of obese dams (Fig. 6A). Thus, exposure to a Western style diet during development increases expression of genes that promote expansion of adipocyte precursor pools and lipid storage in fat tissue.


Maternal antioxidant supplementation prevents adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed rats.

Sen S, Simmons RA - Diabetes (2010)

Maternal antioxidant supplement normalizes gene expression in fat tissue from offspring of obese dams. Visceral fat tissue was harvested from 2-week-old (A) and 2-month-old (B) offspring and mRNA isolated as described in methods. Data shown are ± SEM; n = 4 litters for each group; *P < 0.05 Western diet versus control, control+Aox, and Western+Aox; **P < 0.05 versus Western+Aox versus Western diet.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2992766&req=5

Figure 6: Maternal antioxidant supplement normalizes gene expression in fat tissue from offspring of obese dams. Visceral fat tissue was harvested from 2-week-old (A) and 2-month-old (B) offspring and mRNA isolated as described in methods. Data shown are ± SEM; n = 4 litters for each group; *P < 0.05 Western diet versus control, control+Aox, and Western+Aox; **P < 0.05 versus Western+Aox versus Western diet.
Mentions: There is a rapid and dramatic expansion of the adipose lineage that occurs during the first month of postnatal life in the rodent, and our data demonstrate that exposure to a Western diet during development accentuates this process. We found that mRNA levels of Pref1, Wisp2, and PPARγ were markedly elevated in fat tissues from 2-week-old and 2-month-old offspring of Western diet-fed dams compared with controls (Fig. 6A). Pref1 and Wisp2 maintain the adipocyte precursor cell in a committed but undifferentiated state. Interestingly, expression of BEST5, a gene that promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into bone (37), was markedly reduced in fat tissue of offspring of obese dams (Fig. 6A). Thus, exposure to a Western style diet during development increases expression of genes that promote expansion of adipocyte precursor pools and lipid storage in fat tissue.

Bottom Line: Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth.Gene expression of proadipogenic and lipogenic genes was altered in fat tissue of rats at 2 weeks and 2 months of age.Restoration of the antioxidant balance during pregnancy in the Western diet-fed dam is associated with decreased adiposity in offspring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring.

Research design and methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at 4 weeks of age. Four groups of animals were studied: control chow (control); control + antioxidants (control+Aox); Western diet (Western); and Western diet + antioxidants (Western+Aox). The rats were mated at 12 to 14 weeks of age, and all pups were weaned onto control diet.

Results: Offspring from dams fed the Western diet had significantly increased adiposity as early as 2 weeks of age as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared with offspring of dams fed a control diet. Inflammation and oxidative stress were increased in preimplantation embryos, fetuses, and newborns of Western diet-fed rats. Gene expression of proadipogenic and lipogenic genes was altered in fat tissue of rats at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. The addition of an antioxidant supplement decreased adiposity and normalized glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS; Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play a key role in the development of increased adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed pregnant dams. Restoration of the antioxidant balance during pregnancy in the Western diet-fed dam is associated with decreased adiposity in offspring.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus