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Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data.

Rizkalla SW - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2010)

Bottom Line: Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive.Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group.Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts.The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients.It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INSERM, U872, équipe 7 Nutriomique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, UMR S 872, Paris, 75006 France. salwa.rizkalla@psl.aphp.fr.

ABSTRACT
This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers.Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group.Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts.The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose intake and health risk markers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

LDL particle size in 6 to 14 years old Swiss children, values are means ± SD, (Figure adapted from Aeberli et al [4].
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Figure 3: LDL particle size in 6 to 14 years old Swiss children, values are means ± SD, (Figure adapted from Aeberli et al [4].

Mentions: Studying normal-weight and overweight 6-14 old Swiss children, Aeberli et al [4] aimed to determine whether LDL particle size is associated with dietary factors and especially with fructose intake. The authors used a cross-sectional, and not interventional, study in 74 children and dietary intakes were estimated by using two 24-h recalls and a one-day dietary record. Although there were no significant differences in total fructose intake, the authors concluded that after adjusting the results for adiposity, fructose intake was a significant predictor of LDL particle size, which was significantly smaller in the overweight children than in the normal weight ones. However, upon further examination, these values (Figure 3), the LDL particle size, while described as statistically different, could not have significant clinical impact with only a 1.7% reduction between the two groups with overlapping of values (great SD). This study gave quite a negative image of fructose and reopened the debate on whether fructose consumption itself was a health risk. Again it must be noted that this was a cross sectional study and that the main outcome is based on dietary recalls or dietary records. Dietary recalls, even when validated, can not give precise results, particularly in children, because their ability to record or remember their diet is limited [107,108]. In this study there was no association between fructose consumption and HDL, LDL, total cholesterol or triacylglycerol. The study failed to demonstrate an increase in total fructose intake in the overweight children. However, the authors cited that overweight children consumed significantly less fructose, as a percentage of total fructose, from fruits and vegetables but more fructose, also as a percentage of total fructose, from sweetened drinks and sweets. This is some what misleading, because the absolute amounts of fructose intake from fruits and vegetables or from sweet drinks did not differ significantly between the two groups. In addition, the correlation between LDL size and total fructose intake was poor, β = - 0.245. This poor correlation, however, could not confirm a causal relationship. In a debate entitled "Fructose: Sweet or Bitter for Diabetes" that took place during the 26th Symposium on Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG, 2008, Varna, Bulgaria) of the EASD, the author (Dr Isabelle Aeberli) admitted that the problem with fructose is due mainly to the amount utilized and not to fructose itself. Moreover, the generation of small triacylglycerol rich lipoprotein particles, such as generated by fructose, does not itself seem to be a sufficient condition for atherogenesis [109].


Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data.

Rizkalla SW - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2010)

LDL particle size in 6 to 14 years old Swiss children, values are means ± SD, (Figure adapted from Aeberli et al [4].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2991323&req=5

Figure 3: LDL particle size in 6 to 14 years old Swiss children, values are means ± SD, (Figure adapted from Aeberli et al [4].
Mentions: Studying normal-weight and overweight 6-14 old Swiss children, Aeberli et al [4] aimed to determine whether LDL particle size is associated with dietary factors and especially with fructose intake. The authors used a cross-sectional, and not interventional, study in 74 children and dietary intakes were estimated by using two 24-h recalls and a one-day dietary record. Although there were no significant differences in total fructose intake, the authors concluded that after adjusting the results for adiposity, fructose intake was a significant predictor of LDL particle size, which was significantly smaller in the overweight children than in the normal weight ones. However, upon further examination, these values (Figure 3), the LDL particle size, while described as statistically different, could not have significant clinical impact with only a 1.7% reduction between the two groups with overlapping of values (great SD). This study gave quite a negative image of fructose and reopened the debate on whether fructose consumption itself was a health risk. Again it must be noted that this was a cross sectional study and that the main outcome is based on dietary recalls or dietary records. Dietary recalls, even when validated, can not give precise results, particularly in children, because their ability to record or remember their diet is limited [107,108]. In this study there was no association between fructose consumption and HDL, LDL, total cholesterol or triacylglycerol. The study failed to demonstrate an increase in total fructose intake in the overweight children. However, the authors cited that overweight children consumed significantly less fructose, as a percentage of total fructose, from fruits and vegetables but more fructose, also as a percentage of total fructose, from sweetened drinks and sweets. This is some what misleading, because the absolute amounts of fructose intake from fruits and vegetables or from sweet drinks did not differ significantly between the two groups. In addition, the correlation between LDL size and total fructose intake was poor, β = - 0.245. This poor correlation, however, could not confirm a causal relationship. In a debate entitled "Fructose: Sweet or Bitter for Diabetes" that took place during the 26th Symposium on Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG, 2008, Varna, Bulgaria) of the EASD, the author (Dr Isabelle Aeberli) admitted that the problem with fructose is due mainly to the amount utilized and not to fructose itself. Moreover, the generation of small triacylglycerol rich lipoprotein particles, such as generated by fructose, does not itself seem to be a sufficient condition for atherogenesis [109].

Bottom Line: Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive.Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group.Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts.The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients.It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INSERM, U872, équipe 7 Nutriomique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, UMR S 872, Paris, 75006 France. salwa.rizkalla@psl.aphp.fr.

ABSTRACT
This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers.Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group.Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts.The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose intake and health risk markers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus