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Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data.

Rizkalla SW - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2010)

Bottom Line: Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive.Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group.Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts.The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients.It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INSERM, U872, équipe 7 Nutriomique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, UMR S 872, Paris, 75006 France. salwa.rizkalla@psl.aphp.fr.

ABSTRACT
This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers.Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group.Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts.The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose intake and health risk markers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fructose and glucose metabolism in liver cells: After several steps glucose is converted into fructose1,6-bi-phosphate. A reaction regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme phosphofructokinase, which is inhibited by ATP and citrate. Altogether the conversion of glucose to pyruvate is regulated by insulin. On the other hand, fructose, is massively taken by the liver, and converted rapidly to triose-phosphate independently of insulin control and without a feedback by ATP or citrate. A large portion of fructose is converted into glucose which can be released in the blood or stored as glycogen. A part is converted into lactate. A small portion is converted into fatty acids, which may play an important role in the development of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver.
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Figure 1: Fructose and glucose metabolism in liver cells: After several steps glucose is converted into fructose1,6-bi-phosphate. A reaction regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme phosphofructokinase, which is inhibited by ATP and citrate. Altogether the conversion of glucose to pyruvate is regulated by insulin. On the other hand, fructose, is massively taken by the liver, and converted rapidly to triose-phosphate independently of insulin control and without a feedback by ATP or citrate. A large portion of fructose is converted into glucose which can be released in the blood or stored as glycogen. A part is converted into lactate. A small portion is converted into fatty acids, which may play an important role in the development of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver.

Mentions: fructose is absorbed from the intestine via glucose transporters 5 (GLUT 5), then it diffuses into the blood vessels through GLUT 2 or 5 [58], but mainly by GLUT 2. Contrary to glucose, fructose absorption from the intestinal lumen does not require ATP hydrolysis and is independent of sodium absorption, which results in massive fructose uptake by the liver [59].


Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data.

Rizkalla SW - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2010)

Fructose and glucose metabolism in liver cells: After several steps glucose is converted into fructose1,6-bi-phosphate. A reaction regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme phosphofructokinase, which is inhibited by ATP and citrate. Altogether the conversion of glucose to pyruvate is regulated by insulin. On the other hand, fructose, is massively taken by the liver, and converted rapidly to triose-phosphate independently of insulin control and without a feedback by ATP or citrate. A large portion of fructose is converted into glucose which can be released in the blood or stored as glycogen. A part is converted into lactate. A small portion is converted into fatty acids, which may play an important role in the development of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2991323&req=5

Figure 1: Fructose and glucose metabolism in liver cells: After several steps glucose is converted into fructose1,6-bi-phosphate. A reaction regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme phosphofructokinase, which is inhibited by ATP and citrate. Altogether the conversion of glucose to pyruvate is regulated by insulin. On the other hand, fructose, is massively taken by the liver, and converted rapidly to triose-phosphate independently of insulin control and without a feedback by ATP or citrate. A large portion of fructose is converted into glucose which can be released in the blood or stored as glycogen. A part is converted into lactate. A small portion is converted into fatty acids, which may play an important role in the development of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver.
Mentions: fructose is absorbed from the intestine via glucose transporters 5 (GLUT 5), then it diffuses into the blood vessels through GLUT 2 or 5 [58], but mainly by GLUT 2. Contrary to glucose, fructose absorption from the intestinal lumen does not require ATP hydrolysis and is independent of sodium absorption, which results in massive fructose uptake by the liver [59].

Bottom Line: Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive.Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group.Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts.The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients.It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INSERM, U872, équipe 7 Nutriomique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, UMR S 872, Paris, 75006 France. salwa.rizkalla@psl.aphp.fr.

ABSTRACT
This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers.Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group.Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts.The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose intake and health risk markers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus