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Olfactory FMRI in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Hummel T, Fliessbach K, Abele M, Okulla T, Reden J, Reichmann H, Wüllner U, Haehner A - Front Integr Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: All participants received either unpleasant stimuli that smelled like rotten eggs or pleasant ones that smelled like roses.Olfactory function was established using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery.These results may partly reflect differences between PD patients and healthy controls in the processing of primary dimensions of odors, intensity, and valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Hyposmia is one of the early signs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Olfactory stimuli were applied during fMRI scanning to show disease-related modulation of central nervous system structures and to advance our understanding of olfactory dysfunction in PD patients. All participants received either unpleasant stimuli that smelled like rotten eggs or pleasant ones that smelled like roses. Using a block design at a 1.5 T scanner we investigated a total of 8 PD patients (mean age 60 ± 10.9 years) and 13 age matched controls (mean age 58 ± 9.6 years). PD duration ranged from 1 to 9 years (mean 6.63 years); patients had an average "Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III" score of 23.25 (range, 6-46). Olfactory function was established using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery. Patients tended to rate the stimuli presented during fMRI scans as less intense, but also as more pleasant than controls. fMRI results revealed differences between PD patients and controls which depended on the type of stimulation. While both pleasant and unpleasant stimulation was associated with lower activation in the amygdalo-hippocampal complex in patients compared to controls, increased activity in response to pleasant stimuli was observed in the striatum and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In contrast, unpleasant stimulation led to hypoactivation of the ventral striatum in patients (but not in controls) and did not enhance left inferior frontal activity. These results may partly reflect differences between PD patients and healthy controls in the processing of primary dimensions of odors, intensity, and valence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brain activation found in controls and patients. In the upper part results are shown for the pleasant rose odor, in the lower part results for the unpleasant H2S are shown. For A and B, sections are at MNI coordinates x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. (A) Control group – positive BOLD responses to PEA stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected); (B) PD patients – positive BOLD responses to PEA stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.005, uncorrected); (C) Control group – positive BOLD responses to hydrogen sulfate stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected), sections at MNI coordinates x = −18, y = −15, z = −12 (global peak voxel activation in the left hippocampus); (D) PD patients – positive BOLD responses to hydrogen sulfate stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected), sections at MNI coordinates x = −30, y = −12, z = −30 (global peak voxel activation in the left fusiform gyrus).
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Figure 1: Brain activation found in controls and patients. In the upper part results are shown for the pleasant rose odor, in the lower part results for the unpleasant H2S are shown. For A and B, sections are at MNI coordinates x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. (A) Control group – positive BOLD responses to PEA stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected); (B) PD patients – positive BOLD responses to PEA stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.005, uncorrected); (C) Control group – positive BOLD responses to hydrogen sulfate stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected), sections at MNI coordinates x = −18, y = −15, z = −12 (global peak voxel activation in the left hippocampus); (D) PD patients – positive BOLD responses to hydrogen sulfate stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected), sections at MNI coordinates x = −30, y = −12, z = −30 (global peak voxel activation in the left fusiform gyrus).

Mentions: Rose-like odor stimulation in the control subjects yielded widespread activation of both subcortical and cortical areas largely consistent with previous studies on olfactory activation (Table 1). These included bilateral thalamus, amygdalae, hippocampi, midbrain, basal ganglia, and insular regions, as well as prefrontal and temporolateral regions. There was significant activation in all predefined regions of interest except right NAcc and left inferior frontal gyrus, pars triangularis (Figure 1A).


Olfactory FMRI in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Hummel T, Fliessbach K, Abele M, Okulla T, Reden J, Reichmann H, Wüllner U, Haehner A - Front Integr Neurosci (2010)

Brain activation found in controls and patients. In the upper part results are shown for the pleasant rose odor, in the lower part results for the unpleasant H2S are shown. For A and B, sections are at MNI coordinates x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. (A) Control group – positive BOLD responses to PEA stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected); (B) PD patients – positive BOLD responses to PEA stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.005, uncorrected); (C) Control group – positive BOLD responses to hydrogen sulfate stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected), sections at MNI coordinates x = −18, y = −15, z = −12 (global peak voxel activation in the left hippocampus); (D) PD patients – positive BOLD responses to hydrogen sulfate stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected), sections at MNI coordinates x = −30, y = −12, z = −30 (global peak voxel activation in the left fusiform gyrus).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2991239&req=5

Figure 1: Brain activation found in controls and patients. In the upper part results are shown for the pleasant rose odor, in the lower part results for the unpleasant H2S are shown. For A and B, sections are at MNI coordinates x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. (A) Control group – positive BOLD responses to PEA stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected); (B) PD patients – positive BOLD responses to PEA stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.005, uncorrected); (C) Control group – positive BOLD responses to hydrogen sulfate stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected), sections at MNI coordinates x = −18, y = −15, z = −12 (global peak voxel activation in the left hippocampus); (D) PD patients – positive BOLD responses to hydrogen sulfate stimulation (threshold T = 3.7, P = 0.015, uncorrected), sections at MNI coordinates x = −30, y = −12, z = −30 (global peak voxel activation in the left fusiform gyrus).
Mentions: Rose-like odor stimulation in the control subjects yielded widespread activation of both subcortical and cortical areas largely consistent with previous studies on olfactory activation (Table 1). These included bilateral thalamus, amygdalae, hippocampi, midbrain, basal ganglia, and insular regions, as well as prefrontal and temporolateral regions. There was significant activation in all predefined regions of interest except right NAcc and left inferior frontal gyrus, pars triangularis (Figure 1A).

Bottom Line: All participants received either unpleasant stimuli that smelled like rotten eggs or pleasant ones that smelled like roses.Olfactory function was established using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery.These results may partly reflect differences between PD patients and healthy controls in the processing of primary dimensions of odors, intensity, and valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Hyposmia is one of the early signs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Olfactory stimuli were applied during fMRI scanning to show disease-related modulation of central nervous system structures and to advance our understanding of olfactory dysfunction in PD patients. All participants received either unpleasant stimuli that smelled like rotten eggs or pleasant ones that smelled like roses. Using a block design at a 1.5 T scanner we investigated a total of 8 PD patients (mean age 60 ± 10.9 years) and 13 age matched controls (mean age 58 ± 9.6 years). PD duration ranged from 1 to 9 years (mean 6.63 years); patients had an average "Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III" score of 23.25 (range, 6-46). Olfactory function was established using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery. Patients tended to rate the stimuli presented during fMRI scans as less intense, but also as more pleasant than controls. fMRI results revealed differences between PD patients and controls which depended on the type of stimulation. While both pleasant and unpleasant stimulation was associated with lower activation in the amygdalo-hippocampal complex in patients compared to controls, increased activity in response to pleasant stimuli was observed in the striatum and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In contrast, unpleasant stimulation led to hypoactivation of the ventral striatum in patients (but not in controls) and did not enhance left inferior frontal activity. These results may partly reflect differences between PD patients and healthy controls in the processing of primary dimensions of odors, intensity, and valence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus