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Neural correlates of learning to attend.

Kelley TA, Yantis S - Front Hum Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: Training led to a reduction in behavioral distraction effects, and these improvements in performance generalized to untrained conditions.Although large regions of early visual and posterior parietal cortices responded to the presence of distractors, these regions did not exhibit significant changes in their response following training.We conclude that training did not change the robustness of the initial sensory response, but led to increased efficiency in late-stage filtering in the trained conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Mind and Brain, University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Recent work has shown that training can improve attentional focus. Little is known, however, about how training in attention and multitasking affects the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in cortical responses to distracting stimuli during training on a visual categorization task. Training led to a reduction in behavioral distraction effects, and these improvements in performance generalized to untrained conditions. Although large regions of early visual and posterior parietal cortices responded to the presence of distractors, these regions did not exhibit significant changes in their response following training. In contrast, middle frontal gyrus did exhibit decreased distractor-related responses with practice, showing the same trend as behavior for previously observed distractor locations. However, the neural response in this region diverged from behavior for novel distractor locations, showing greater activity. We conclude that training did not change the robustness of the initial sensory response, but led to increased efficiency in late-stage filtering in the trained conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Difference in peak BOLD response for distractor present vs. distractor absent trials as a function of Block in fusiform face area (FFA). Peak distractor signal shown for face and non-face distractors presented in old and new distractor locations. (A) Left FFA. (B) Right FFA.
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Figure 6: Difference in peak BOLD response for distractor present vs. distractor absent trials as a function of Block in fusiform face area (FFA). Peak distractor signal shown for face and non-face distractors presented in old and new distractor locations. (A) Left FFA. (B) Right FFA.

Mentions: Figure 6 shows the difference in the peak BOLD response for distractor present vs. distractor absent trials in left (Figure 6A) and right (Figure 6B) FFA. The data are plotted separately for face (solid lines) and non-face (dashed lines) distractors in both old and new locations. The specific distractor location (e.g., upper-left or lower-right) was not considered here, owing to the relatively low number of face distractors at each location and the fact that FFA is located outside retinotopically oriented visual cortex (Halgren et al., 1999). As expected, the response to face distractors is greater than non-face distractors (as they must be based on the contrast used to identify these regions). This face selectivity, and the magnitude of the responses to the stimuli, does not change over blocks. For each region, an ANOVA was conducted to analyze the effects of Block and Distractor Type on peak response difference, collapsed across old and new locations. In both regions there was a significant effect of Distractor Type (Left: F(1,16) = 22.74, p < 0.001; Right: F(1,16) = 15.39, p < 0.001); no other effects were significant (all F's < 1). For data from Blocks 7 and 8, we examined the interaction of Distractor Type, Block and Location (old or new). Again, the effects of Distractor Type were significant; also, there was a marginal effect of Location in right FFA (F(1,16) = 3.77, p < 0.07). No other main effects or interactions were significant. Thus, even in areas concerned with processing the identity of distractor objects, there was no effect of learning on cortical activity.


Neural correlates of learning to attend.

Kelley TA, Yantis S - Front Hum Neurosci (2010)

Difference in peak BOLD response for distractor present vs. distractor absent trials as a function of Block in fusiform face area (FFA). Peak distractor signal shown for face and non-face distractors presented in old and new distractor locations. (A) Left FFA. (B) Right FFA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2991198&req=5

Figure 6: Difference in peak BOLD response for distractor present vs. distractor absent trials as a function of Block in fusiform face area (FFA). Peak distractor signal shown for face and non-face distractors presented in old and new distractor locations. (A) Left FFA. (B) Right FFA.
Mentions: Figure 6 shows the difference in the peak BOLD response for distractor present vs. distractor absent trials in left (Figure 6A) and right (Figure 6B) FFA. The data are plotted separately for face (solid lines) and non-face (dashed lines) distractors in both old and new locations. The specific distractor location (e.g., upper-left or lower-right) was not considered here, owing to the relatively low number of face distractors at each location and the fact that FFA is located outside retinotopically oriented visual cortex (Halgren et al., 1999). As expected, the response to face distractors is greater than non-face distractors (as they must be based on the contrast used to identify these regions). This face selectivity, and the magnitude of the responses to the stimuli, does not change over blocks. For each region, an ANOVA was conducted to analyze the effects of Block and Distractor Type on peak response difference, collapsed across old and new locations. In both regions there was a significant effect of Distractor Type (Left: F(1,16) = 22.74, p < 0.001; Right: F(1,16) = 15.39, p < 0.001); no other effects were significant (all F's < 1). For data from Blocks 7 and 8, we examined the interaction of Distractor Type, Block and Location (old or new). Again, the effects of Distractor Type were significant; also, there was a marginal effect of Location in right FFA (F(1,16) = 3.77, p < 0.07). No other main effects or interactions were significant. Thus, even in areas concerned with processing the identity of distractor objects, there was no effect of learning on cortical activity.

Bottom Line: Training led to a reduction in behavioral distraction effects, and these improvements in performance generalized to untrained conditions.Although large regions of early visual and posterior parietal cortices responded to the presence of distractors, these regions did not exhibit significant changes in their response following training.We conclude that training did not change the robustness of the initial sensory response, but led to increased efficiency in late-stage filtering in the trained conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Mind and Brain, University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Recent work has shown that training can improve attentional focus. Little is known, however, about how training in attention and multitasking affects the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in cortical responses to distracting stimuli during training on a visual categorization task. Training led to a reduction in behavioral distraction effects, and these improvements in performance generalized to untrained conditions. Although large regions of early visual and posterior parietal cortices responded to the presence of distractors, these regions did not exhibit significant changes in their response following training. In contrast, middle frontal gyrus did exhibit decreased distractor-related responses with practice, showing the same trend as behavior for previously observed distractor locations. However, the neural response in this region diverged from behavior for novel distractor locations, showing greater activity. We conclude that training did not change the robustness of the initial sensory response, but led to increased efficiency in late-stage filtering in the trained conditions.

No MeSH data available.