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Neural correlates of learning to attend.

Kelley TA, Yantis S - Front Hum Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: Training led to a reduction in behavioral distraction effects, and these improvements in performance generalized to untrained conditions.Although large regions of early visual and posterior parietal cortices responded to the presence of distractors, these regions did not exhibit significant changes in their response following training.We conclude that training did not change the robustness of the initial sensory response, but led to increased efficiency in late-stage filtering in the trained conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Mind and Brain, University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Recent work has shown that training can improve attentional focus. Little is known, however, about how training in attention and multitasking affects the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in cortical responses to distracting stimuli during training on a visual categorization task. Training led to a reduction in behavioral distraction effects, and these improvements in performance generalized to untrained conditions. Although large regions of early visual and posterior parietal cortices responded to the presence of distractors, these regions did not exhibit significant changes in their response following training. In contrast, middle frontal gyrus did exhibit decreased distractor-related responses with practice, showing the same trend as behavior for previously observed distractor locations. However, the neural response in this region diverged from behavior for novel distractor locations, showing greater activity. We conclude that training did not change the robustness of the initial sensory response, but led to increased efficiency in late-stage filtering in the trained conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Behavioral effect of distractor across blocks, measured as difference in RT; positive values indicate increased RT in the presence of distractors. Dashed black line indicates point at which new distractor locations were introduced in this figure and all later figures. Red: data for old distractor locations; black: data for new distractor locations.
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Figure 4: Behavioral effect of distractor across blocks, measured as difference in RT; positive values indicate increased RT in the presence of distractors. Dashed black line indicates point at which new distractor locations were introduced in this figure and all later figures. Red: data for old distractor locations; black: data for new distractor locations.

Mentions: Figure 4 shows the RT difference between Distractor Present and Distractor Absent trials as a function of block. This pattern is similar to that observed previously (Kelley and Yantis, 2009): an initial cost for the presence of distractors which eventually approached zero. Distractors appearing in new locations in the transfer conditions of Blocks 7 and 8 (black triangles) did not produce any greater RT cost than distractors appearing in old locations in the same blocks (red circles), indicating effective transfer of learning to new locations. Although an ANOVA examining the effect of Block on RT difference, averaged across all locations, was not significant (F(7,112) = 1.61, p < 0.14), a set of orthogonal contrasts (see Table 1) revealed that the difference in RT for distractor present vs. absent was larger in Blocks 1–2 than the subsequent six blocks (C1) (F(1,112) = 7.82, p < 0.01), accounting for 69% of the variance due to block. No other contrasts reached significance (C2: F(1,112) = 2.16, p < 0.15; all other F's < 1). Thus, subjects were slower to respond when distractors were present in the first two blocks, but were able to overcome this interference for the remainder of the trials, indicating improved performance with practice. A factorial ANOVA examining the effects of Block and Distractor Location for Blocks 7 and 8 was not significant for either factor, nor was the interaction (all F's < 1), showing that the practice effects transferred to the new distractor locations.


Neural correlates of learning to attend.

Kelley TA, Yantis S - Front Hum Neurosci (2010)

Behavioral effect of distractor across blocks, measured as difference in RT; positive values indicate increased RT in the presence of distractors. Dashed black line indicates point at which new distractor locations were introduced in this figure and all later figures. Red: data for old distractor locations; black: data for new distractor locations.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2991198&req=5

Figure 4: Behavioral effect of distractor across blocks, measured as difference in RT; positive values indicate increased RT in the presence of distractors. Dashed black line indicates point at which new distractor locations were introduced in this figure and all later figures. Red: data for old distractor locations; black: data for new distractor locations.
Mentions: Figure 4 shows the RT difference between Distractor Present and Distractor Absent trials as a function of block. This pattern is similar to that observed previously (Kelley and Yantis, 2009): an initial cost for the presence of distractors which eventually approached zero. Distractors appearing in new locations in the transfer conditions of Blocks 7 and 8 (black triangles) did not produce any greater RT cost than distractors appearing in old locations in the same blocks (red circles), indicating effective transfer of learning to new locations. Although an ANOVA examining the effect of Block on RT difference, averaged across all locations, was not significant (F(7,112) = 1.61, p < 0.14), a set of orthogonal contrasts (see Table 1) revealed that the difference in RT for distractor present vs. absent was larger in Blocks 1–2 than the subsequent six blocks (C1) (F(1,112) = 7.82, p < 0.01), accounting for 69% of the variance due to block. No other contrasts reached significance (C2: F(1,112) = 2.16, p < 0.15; all other F's < 1). Thus, subjects were slower to respond when distractors were present in the first two blocks, but were able to overcome this interference for the remainder of the trials, indicating improved performance with practice. A factorial ANOVA examining the effects of Block and Distractor Location for Blocks 7 and 8 was not significant for either factor, nor was the interaction (all F's < 1), showing that the practice effects transferred to the new distractor locations.

Bottom Line: Training led to a reduction in behavioral distraction effects, and these improvements in performance generalized to untrained conditions.Although large regions of early visual and posterior parietal cortices responded to the presence of distractors, these regions did not exhibit significant changes in their response following training.We conclude that training did not change the robustness of the initial sensory response, but led to increased efficiency in late-stage filtering in the trained conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Mind and Brain, University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Recent work has shown that training can improve attentional focus. Little is known, however, about how training in attention and multitasking affects the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in cortical responses to distracting stimuli during training on a visual categorization task. Training led to a reduction in behavioral distraction effects, and these improvements in performance generalized to untrained conditions. Although large regions of early visual and posterior parietal cortices responded to the presence of distractors, these regions did not exhibit significant changes in their response following training. In contrast, middle frontal gyrus did exhibit decreased distractor-related responses with practice, showing the same trend as behavior for previously observed distractor locations. However, the neural response in this region diverged from behavior for novel distractor locations, showing greater activity. We conclude that training did not change the robustness of the initial sensory response, but led to increased efficiency in late-stage filtering in the trained conditions.

No MeSH data available.