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The effect of three months of aerobic training on response preparation in older adults.

Renaud M, Maquestiaux F, Joncas S, Kergoat MJ, Bherer L - Front Aging Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: This study assessed the effects of an aerobic training program on reaction time tasks that manipulated preparatory intervals (PI) to produce temporal preparation effects using short (1, 3, 5 s) and long (5, 7, 9 s) PI.The control group did not receive any training.Results indicated that 12 weeks of aerobic training induced a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory capacity (VO(2)max estimate).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Québec at Montréal Montréal, QC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
This study assessed the effects of an aerobic training program on reaction time tasks that manipulated preparatory intervals (PI) to produce temporal preparation effects using short (1, 3, 5 s) and long (5, 7, 9 s) PI. Older adults were assigned to either a 3-month aerobic training group or to a control group. Individuals in the training group participated in an aerobic training program of three 60-min sessions per week. The control group did not receive any training. Results indicated that 12 weeks of aerobic training induced a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory capacity (VO(2)max estimate). All participants who completed the aerobic program showed improvement after training in the choice RT task, along with enhanced preparation, such that they maintained preparation over time more efficiently after the training program. Moreover, enhanced ability to use the short PI was observed but only in lower fit individuals. Results of the present study suggest that improving aerobic fitness may enhance attentional control mechanisms in older adults.

No MeSH data available.


Figural description of the response preparation task.
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Figure 1: Figural description of the response preparation task.

Mentions: Response preparation was assessed with a RT paradigm that has shown age-related differences in response preparation (Bherer and Belleville, 2004a,b). To begin each simple and choice RT trial participants pressed a central button on a response box with the index finger. During each trial, they had to keep the home key depressed until the response signal occurred. An auditory signal occurring at the beginning of the trial served as a preparatory signal. The response signal was a black circle appearing in the center of the screen (simple RT) or either on the right or the left side of a white circle located in the center of the screen (choice RT; see Figure 1). In the simple RT task, the participant had to press the response key located on the right side of the home key with the index finger. In the choice RT task, the response button corresponded to the position of the black circle (left or right). In both, the choice and the simple RT tasks, temporal preparation was assessed using preparatory intervals (PI) embedded in a short (PI of 1, 3, 5 s) and a long (PI of 5, 7, 9 s) temporal window. In each window, the three PIs varied randomly and unexpectedly between trials. This procedure produces preparatory functions according to which response time decreases as the PI increases. Thus, as the probability of the response stimulus increases there is increased response preparation. In fact, if three PIs are used randomly, the probability that a response must be provided at the 1st PI is 0.33. If nothing occurs at the 1st PI, probability increases to 0.50 at the 2nd PI. If no signal occurs at the 2nd PI, the probability that it will occur at the 3rd PI is 1.


The effect of three months of aerobic training on response preparation in older adults.

Renaud M, Maquestiaux F, Joncas S, Kergoat MJ, Bherer L - Front Aging Neurosci (2010)

Figural description of the response preparation task.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2991190&req=5

Figure 1: Figural description of the response preparation task.
Mentions: Response preparation was assessed with a RT paradigm that has shown age-related differences in response preparation (Bherer and Belleville, 2004a,b). To begin each simple and choice RT trial participants pressed a central button on a response box with the index finger. During each trial, they had to keep the home key depressed until the response signal occurred. An auditory signal occurring at the beginning of the trial served as a preparatory signal. The response signal was a black circle appearing in the center of the screen (simple RT) or either on the right or the left side of a white circle located in the center of the screen (choice RT; see Figure 1). In the simple RT task, the participant had to press the response key located on the right side of the home key with the index finger. In the choice RT task, the response button corresponded to the position of the black circle (left or right). In both, the choice and the simple RT tasks, temporal preparation was assessed using preparatory intervals (PI) embedded in a short (PI of 1, 3, 5 s) and a long (PI of 5, 7, 9 s) temporal window. In each window, the three PIs varied randomly and unexpectedly between trials. This procedure produces preparatory functions according to which response time decreases as the PI increases. Thus, as the probability of the response stimulus increases there is increased response preparation. In fact, if three PIs are used randomly, the probability that a response must be provided at the 1st PI is 0.33. If nothing occurs at the 1st PI, probability increases to 0.50 at the 2nd PI. If no signal occurs at the 2nd PI, the probability that it will occur at the 3rd PI is 1.

Bottom Line: This study assessed the effects of an aerobic training program on reaction time tasks that manipulated preparatory intervals (PI) to produce temporal preparation effects using short (1, 3, 5 s) and long (5, 7, 9 s) PI.The control group did not receive any training.Results indicated that 12 weeks of aerobic training induced a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory capacity (VO(2)max estimate).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Québec at Montréal Montréal, QC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
This study assessed the effects of an aerobic training program on reaction time tasks that manipulated preparatory intervals (PI) to produce temporal preparation effects using short (1, 3, 5 s) and long (5, 7, 9 s) PI. Older adults were assigned to either a 3-month aerobic training group or to a control group. Individuals in the training group participated in an aerobic training program of three 60-min sessions per week. The control group did not receive any training. Results indicated that 12 weeks of aerobic training induced a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory capacity (VO(2)max estimate). All participants who completed the aerobic program showed improvement after training in the choice RT task, along with enhanced preparation, such that they maintained preparation over time more efficiently after the training program. Moreover, enhanced ability to use the short PI was observed but only in lower fit individuals. Results of the present study suggest that improving aerobic fitness may enhance attentional control mechanisms in older adults.

No MeSH data available.