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Algal photosynthesis as the primary driver for a sustainable development in energy, feed, and food production.

Anemaet IG, Bekker M, Hellingwerf KJ - Mar. Biotechnol. (2010)

Bottom Line: PCC 6803.Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase.Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps--after acid hydrolysis--as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Microbial Physiology Group, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO₂ into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO₂ into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps--after acid hydrolysis--as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro.

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The photanol concept: Various fermentation pathways (i.e., via an ldh to form lactic acid) from a chemotrophic organism (i.e., Lactococcus lactis in case of L-ldh) can be introduced by genetic engineering into a cyanobacterium. Endogenous metabolism will provide the newly introduced enzymes with precursor metabolites (like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, NADPH (and ATP) to form desired end products
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Fig2: The photanol concept: Various fermentation pathways (i.e., via an ldh to form lactic acid) from a chemotrophic organism (i.e., Lactococcus lactis in case of L-ldh) can be introduced by genetic engineering into a cyanobacterium. Endogenous metabolism will provide the newly introduced enzymes with precursor metabolites (like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, NADPH (and ATP) to form desired end products

Mentions: Hellingwerf and Teixeira de Mattos therefore have proposed the photanol approach (Hellingwerf and Teixeira de Mattos 2009); see also (Angermayr et al. 2009): Light-driven conversion of CO2 and water into biofuel can be achieved by combining the elementary reactions of photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle in combination with a fermentative pathway from a chemoheterotrophic microorganism in one single chimera (see Fig. 2). In 1999, Deng and Coleman (1999) already provided evidence that ethanol can be formed in this way by Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 after heterologous expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and an alcohol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis. More recently, Dexter and Fu (2009) demonstrated the functionality of the same chimeric type of metabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and we have recently shown that this approach can be used to produce additional products (S.A. Angermayr et al., data not shown).Fig. 2


Algal photosynthesis as the primary driver for a sustainable development in energy, feed, and food production.

Anemaet IG, Bekker M, Hellingwerf KJ - Mar. Biotechnol. (2010)

The photanol concept: Various fermentation pathways (i.e., via an ldh to form lactic acid) from a chemotrophic organism (i.e., Lactococcus lactis in case of L-ldh) can be introduced by genetic engineering into a cyanobacterium. Endogenous metabolism will provide the newly introduced enzymes with precursor metabolites (like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, NADPH (and ATP) to form desired end products
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2991177&req=5

Fig2: The photanol concept: Various fermentation pathways (i.e., via an ldh to form lactic acid) from a chemotrophic organism (i.e., Lactococcus lactis in case of L-ldh) can be introduced by genetic engineering into a cyanobacterium. Endogenous metabolism will provide the newly introduced enzymes with precursor metabolites (like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, NADPH (and ATP) to form desired end products
Mentions: Hellingwerf and Teixeira de Mattos therefore have proposed the photanol approach (Hellingwerf and Teixeira de Mattos 2009); see also (Angermayr et al. 2009): Light-driven conversion of CO2 and water into biofuel can be achieved by combining the elementary reactions of photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle in combination with a fermentative pathway from a chemoheterotrophic microorganism in one single chimera (see Fig. 2). In 1999, Deng and Coleman (1999) already provided evidence that ethanol can be formed in this way by Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 after heterologous expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and an alcohol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis. More recently, Dexter and Fu (2009) demonstrated the functionality of the same chimeric type of metabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and we have recently shown that this approach can be used to produce additional products (S.A. Angermayr et al., data not shown).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: PCC 6803.Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase.Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps--after acid hydrolysis--as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Microbial Physiology Group, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO₂ into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO₂ into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps--after acid hydrolysis--as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro.

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