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Fgf-2 in astroglial cells during vertebrate spinal cord recovery.

Fahmy GH, Moftah MZ - Front Cell Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult.In addition, these results were time-dependent.Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
Fibroblast growth factor-2 is a pleiotrophic cytokine with neurotrophic and gliogenic properties. It is known to regulate CNS injury responses, which include transformation of reactive astrocytes, neurogenesis, and promotion of neurotrophic activities. In the brain, it is localized in astrocytes and discrete neuronal populations. Following both central and peripheral nervous system injury, astrocytes become reactive. These activated cells undergo hypertrophy. A key indicator of astrocyte activation is the increased accumulation of intermediate filaments composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Following physical insult of brain or spinal cord, reactive astrocytes show increased FGF-2 immunoreactivity. Thus, FGF-2 appears to participate in astrocytic differentiation and proliferation and a good candidate for astrocytic function regulation in healthy, injured, or diseased CNS. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying FGF-2 restorative actions and to analyze the changes within astroglial cells, we studied the localization of GFAP and FGF-2 in adult intact and injured Pleurodeles CNS. Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult. In addition, these results were time-dependent. Increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity along the CNS axis, starting 1-week post-injury, was long-lasting extending to 6 weeks. This increase was accompanied by an increase in GFAP immunoreactivity in the same spatial pattern except in SC3 where its level was almost similar to sham-operated animals. Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Double labeling of FGF-2 and GFAP in posterior region of spinal cord (SC3) after 6 weeks of lesion. (A) Sham-operated cases ×40 (B) lesioned cases ×63. Fluorescence imaging showing intense FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity in white matter compared to sham-operated cases. The blue color is a nuclear marker while the orange color in lower panel (arrows) shows a strong widespread colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP all over the spinal cord section. (C) Percentages of FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity labeling intensity compared to sham-operated cases by the posterior region of spinal cord below the lesion site. The graph shows significant increase in FGF-2 in weeks 1 and 6. Increase of GFAP immunoreactivity was also observed but was gradual and time-dependent, not or slightly exceeding shams threshold.
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Figure 4: Double labeling of FGF-2 and GFAP in posterior region of spinal cord (SC3) after 6 weeks of lesion. (A) Sham-operated cases ×40 (B) lesioned cases ×63. Fluorescence imaging showing intense FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity in white matter compared to sham-operated cases. The blue color is a nuclear marker while the orange color in lower panel (arrows) shows a strong widespread colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP all over the spinal cord section. (C) Percentages of FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity labeling intensity compared to sham-operated cases by the posterior region of spinal cord below the lesion site. The graph shows significant increase in FGF-2 in weeks 1 and 6. Increase of GFAP immunoreactivity was also observed but was gradual and time-dependent, not or slightly exceeding shams threshold.

Mentions: A similar pattern was noticed in this part of the spinal cord compared to the previous one. Being the two stumps of the lesion site, it has been noted that they almost behave alike when transection was made in the mid-trunk region. By the first week, FGF-2 significantly increased (191.9 ± 26.7%) compared to sham-operated animals (Figure 4C, Tables 1 and 2). However, GFAP immunoreactivity dramatically decreased below the shams threshold (77.8 ± 11.9%) and was mainly obvious in the white matter where more accumulation of immunoreactive cells were found around the ventral fissure. None was seen in the gray matter.


Fgf-2 in astroglial cells during vertebrate spinal cord recovery.

Fahmy GH, Moftah MZ - Front Cell Neurosci (2010)

Double labeling of FGF-2 and GFAP in posterior region of spinal cord (SC3) after 6 weeks of lesion. (A) Sham-operated cases ×40 (B) lesioned cases ×63. Fluorescence imaging showing intense FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity in white matter compared to sham-operated cases. The blue color is a nuclear marker while the orange color in lower panel (arrows) shows a strong widespread colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP all over the spinal cord section. (C) Percentages of FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity labeling intensity compared to sham-operated cases by the posterior region of spinal cord below the lesion site. The graph shows significant increase in FGF-2 in weeks 1 and 6. Increase of GFAP immunoreactivity was also observed but was gradual and time-dependent, not or slightly exceeding shams threshold.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2990542&req=5

Figure 4: Double labeling of FGF-2 and GFAP in posterior region of spinal cord (SC3) after 6 weeks of lesion. (A) Sham-operated cases ×40 (B) lesioned cases ×63. Fluorescence imaging showing intense FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity in white matter compared to sham-operated cases. The blue color is a nuclear marker while the orange color in lower panel (arrows) shows a strong widespread colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP all over the spinal cord section. (C) Percentages of FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity labeling intensity compared to sham-operated cases by the posterior region of spinal cord below the lesion site. The graph shows significant increase in FGF-2 in weeks 1 and 6. Increase of GFAP immunoreactivity was also observed but was gradual and time-dependent, not or slightly exceeding shams threshold.
Mentions: A similar pattern was noticed in this part of the spinal cord compared to the previous one. Being the two stumps of the lesion site, it has been noted that they almost behave alike when transection was made in the mid-trunk region. By the first week, FGF-2 significantly increased (191.9 ± 26.7%) compared to sham-operated animals (Figure 4C, Tables 1 and 2). However, GFAP immunoreactivity dramatically decreased below the shams threshold (77.8 ± 11.9%) and was mainly obvious in the white matter where more accumulation of immunoreactive cells were found around the ventral fissure. None was seen in the gray matter.

Bottom Line: Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult.In addition, these results were time-dependent.Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
Fibroblast growth factor-2 is a pleiotrophic cytokine with neurotrophic and gliogenic properties. It is known to regulate CNS injury responses, which include transformation of reactive astrocytes, neurogenesis, and promotion of neurotrophic activities. In the brain, it is localized in astrocytes and discrete neuronal populations. Following both central and peripheral nervous system injury, astrocytes become reactive. These activated cells undergo hypertrophy. A key indicator of astrocyte activation is the increased accumulation of intermediate filaments composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Following physical insult of brain or spinal cord, reactive astrocytes show increased FGF-2 immunoreactivity. Thus, FGF-2 appears to participate in astrocytic differentiation and proliferation and a good candidate for astrocytic function regulation in healthy, injured, or diseased CNS. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying FGF-2 restorative actions and to analyze the changes within astroglial cells, we studied the localization of GFAP and FGF-2 in adult intact and injured Pleurodeles CNS. Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult. In addition, these results were time-dependent. Increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity along the CNS axis, starting 1-week post-injury, was long-lasting extending to 6 weeks. This increase was accompanied by an increase in GFAP immunoreactivity in the same spatial pattern except in SC3 where its level was almost similar to sham-operated animals. Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus