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Fgf-2 in astroglial cells during vertebrate spinal cord recovery.

Fahmy GH, Moftah MZ - Front Cell Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult.In addition, these results were time-dependent.Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
Fibroblast growth factor-2 is a pleiotrophic cytokine with neurotrophic and gliogenic properties. It is known to regulate CNS injury responses, which include transformation of reactive astrocytes, neurogenesis, and promotion of neurotrophic activities. In the brain, it is localized in astrocytes and discrete neuronal populations. Following both central and peripheral nervous system injury, astrocytes become reactive. These activated cells undergo hypertrophy. A key indicator of astrocyte activation is the increased accumulation of intermediate filaments composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Following physical insult of brain or spinal cord, reactive astrocytes show increased FGF-2 immunoreactivity. Thus, FGF-2 appears to participate in astrocytic differentiation and proliferation and a good candidate for astrocytic function regulation in healthy, injured, or diseased CNS. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying FGF-2 restorative actions and to analyze the changes within astroglial cells, we studied the localization of GFAP and FGF-2 in adult intact and injured Pleurodeles CNS. Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult. In addition, these results were time-dependent. Increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity along the CNS axis, starting 1-week post-injury, was long-lasting extending to 6 weeks. This increase was accompanied by an increase in GFAP immunoreactivity in the same spatial pattern except in SC3 where its level was almost similar to sham-operated animals. Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Double labeling of FGF-2 and GFAP in anterior region of injured spinal cord (SC1) after 1 week of lesion. (A) Sham operated (B) lesioned animals. Intense accumulation of FGF-2 immunoreactivity is prominent in white matter. GFAP increased significantly in the white matter, as well, as compared to sham-operated animals. Mild amounts of FGF-2 and GFAP were found in ependymal cells surrounding the central canal (cc). The blue color is a nuclear marker while the orange color in lower panel (arrows) shows the colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP (very faint in ependymal cells) ×63. (C) Percentages of labeling intensity of FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity compared to sham-operated cases in the anterior region of the spinal cord (SC1). The graph shows significant increase in FGF-2 and GFAP localization.
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Figure 2: Double labeling of FGF-2 and GFAP in anterior region of injured spinal cord (SC1) after 1 week of lesion. (A) Sham operated (B) lesioned animals. Intense accumulation of FGF-2 immunoreactivity is prominent in white matter. GFAP increased significantly in the white matter, as well, as compared to sham-operated animals. Mild amounts of FGF-2 and GFAP were found in ependymal cells surrounding the central canal (cc). The blue color is a nuclear marker while the orange color in lower panel (arrows) shows the colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP (very faint in ependymal cells) ×63. (C) Percentages of labeling intensity of FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity compared to sham-operated cases in the anterior region of the spinal cord (SC1). The graph shows significant increase in FGF-2 and GFAP localization.

Mentions: By the first week, immunoreactivity of FGF-2 and GFAP was at its maximum. They were both obvious in large quantities in the white matter and their labeling was significantly increased compared to sham-operated animals (258.5 ± 6 and 1068.9 ± 2.4% respectively: Tables 1 and 2). However, they were very rare in gray matter (Figures 2A–C), mainly concentrated in ependymal cells lining the central canal. Colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP labeling suggests that glial cells within the white matter are the main source of FGF-2 in the anterior part of lesioned spinal cord, 1 week post-operation.


Fgf-2 in astroglial cells during vertebrate spinal cord recovery.

Fahmy GH, Moftah MZ - Front Cell Neurosci (2010)

Double labeling of FGF-2 and GFAP in anterior region of injured spinal cord (SC1) after 1 week of lesion. (A) Sham operated (B) lesioned animals. Intense accumulation of FGF-2 immunoreactivity is prominent in white matter. GFAP increased significantly in the white matter, as well, as compared to sham-operated animals. Mild amounts of FGF-2 and GFAP were found in ependymal cells surrounding the central canal (cc). The blue color is a nuclear marker while the orange color in lower panel (arrows) shows the colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP (very faint in ependymal cells) ×63. (C) Percentages of labeling intensity of FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity compared to sham-operated cases in the anterior region of the spinal cord (SC1). The graph shows significant increase in FGF-2 and GFAP localization.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2990542&req=5

Figure 2: Double labeling of FGF-2 and GFAP in anterior region of injured spinal cord (SC1) after 1 week of lesion. (A) Sham operated (B) lesioned animals. Intense accumulation of FGF-2 immunoreactivity is prominent in white matter. GFAP increased significantly in the white matter, as well, as compared to sham-operated animals. Mild amounts of FGF-2 and GFAP were found in ependymal cells surrounding the central canal (cc). The blue color is a nuclear marker while the orange color in lower panel (arrows) shows the colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP (very faint in ependymal cells) ×63. (C) Percentages of labeling intensity of FGF-2 and GFAP immunoreactivity compared to sham-operated cases in the anterior region of the spinal cord (SC1). The graph shows significant increase in FGF-2 and GFAP localization.
Mentions: By the first week, immunoreactivity of FGF-2 and GFAP was at its maximum. They were both obvious in large quantities in the white matter and their labeling was significantly increased compared to sham-operated animals (258.5 ± 6 and 1068.9 ± 2.4% respectively: Tables 1 and 2). However, they were very rare in gray matter (Figures 2A–C), mainly concentrated in ependymal cells lining the central canal. Colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP labeling suggests that glial cells within the white matter are the main source of FGF-2 in the anterior part of lesioned spinal cord, 1 week post-operation.

Bottom Line: Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult.In addition, these results were time-dependent.Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
Fibroblast growth factor-2 is a pleiotrophic cytokine with neurotrophic and gliogenic properties. It is known to regulate CNS injury responses, which include transformation of reactive astrocytes, neurogenesis, and promotion of neurotrophic activities. In the brain, it is localized in astrocytes and discrete neuronal populations. Following both central and peripheral nervous system injury, astrocytes become reactive. These activated cells undergo hypertrophy. A key indicator of astrocyte activation is the increased accumulation of intermediate filaments composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Following physical insult of brain or spinal cord, reactive astrocytes show increased FGF-2 immunoreactivity. Thus, FGF-2 appears to participate in astrocytic differentiation and proliferation and a good candidate for astrocytic function regulation in healthy, injured, or diseased CNS. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying FGF-2 restorative actions and to analyze the changes within astroglial cells, we studied the localization of GFAP and FGF-2 in adult intact and injured Pleurodeles CNS. Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult. In addition, these results were time-dependent. Increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity along the CNS axis, starting 1-week post-injury, was long-lasting extending to 6 weeks. This increase was accompanied by an increase in GFAP immunoreactivity in the same spatial pattern except in SC3 where its level was almost similar to sham-operated animals. Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus