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"Stay tuned": inter-individual neural synchronization during mutual gaze and joint attention.

Saito DN, Tanabe HC, Izuma K, Hayashi MJ, Morito Y, Komeda H, Uchiyama H, Kosaka H, Okazawa H, Fujibayashi Y, Sadato N - Front Integr Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: Averted gaze activated the bilateral occipital pole extending to the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus.After all the task-related effects were modeled out, inter-individual correlation analysis of residual time-courses was performed.Paired subjects showed more prominent correlations than non-paired subjects in the right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting that this region is involved in sharing intention during eye contact that provides the context for joint attention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cerebral Integration, Department of Cerebral Research, National Institute for Physiological Sciences Okazaki, Aichi, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Eye contact provides a communicative link between humans, prompting joint attention. As spontaneous brain activity might have an important role in the coordination of neuronal processing within the brain, their inter-subject synchronization might occur during eye contact. To test this, we conducted simultaneous functional MRI in pairs of adults. Eye contact was maintained at baseline while the subjects engaged in real-time gaze exchange in a joint attention task. Averted gaze activated the bilateral occipital pole extending to the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Following a partner's gaze toward an object activated the left intraparietal sulcus. After all the task-related effects were modeled out, inter-individual correlation analysis of residual time-courses was performed. Paired subjects showed more prominent correlations than non-paired subjects in the right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting that this region is involved in sharing intention during eye contact that provides the context for joint attention.

No MeSH data available.


Joint attention task. The virtual relationship between two participants (P and Q) in the scanner. Arrows indicate the gaze direction toward the screen. Blue and red rectangles indicate the ball cue. During concordant runs (left columns), participants were required to shift their gaze to the target cued by either ball (by means of color) or eye gaze. Each task trial lasted 5 s. During discordant runs (right columns), participants are asked to shift their gaze to the opposite side of the target. BN, ball-non-share; BS, ball-share; EN, eye-non-share; ES, eye-share; SBNc, simultaneous ball-non-share during concordant run; SBNd, simultaneous ball-non-share during discordant run.
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Figure 2: Joint attention task. The virtual relationship between two participants (P and Q) in the scanner. Arrows indicate the gaze direction toward the screen. Blue and red rectangles indicate the ball cue. During concordant runs (left columns), participants were required to shift their gaze to the target cued by either ball (by means of color) or eye gaze. Each task trial lasted 5 s. During discordant runs (right columns), participants are asked to shift their gaze to the opposite side of the target. BN, ball-non-share; BS, ball-share; EN, eye-non-share; ES, eye-share; SBNc, simultaneous ball-non-share during concordant run; SBNd, simultaneous ball-non-share during discordant run.

Mentions: In concordant runs, four tasks were configured by three types of the ball cue presentation (Figure 2). As the first type, the ball cue was provided to one participant. Here, following eye contact for 2,000 ms with two red balls in the lower half of the screen, one of the balls in front of one participant (say, P) changed to blue for 2,500 ms. The participant P was required to shift his gaze to the changed ball as soon as possible. The counterpart (say, Q) was asked to gaze at the ball (which from his or her perspective does not change in color) that P attended to. Then, the balls on both sides disappeared for 500 ms, at which point the participants returned to joint eye contact. As participants P and Q watched the same ball target, P underwent ball-cued shared attention (ball-share [BS]) and Q underwent eye-cued shared attention (eye-share [ES]). As the second type, the ball cue was provided to both participants simultaneously. In this case, following eye contact for 2,000 ms with two red balls in the lower half of the screen, one of the balls in front of both participants changed to blue simultaneously, but on different sides, for 2,500 ms. The participants were required to shift their gaze to the changed ball. Thus, both participants underwent simultaneously ball-cued non-shared attention (simultaneous ball-non-share during concordant run [SBNc]). As the third type, no ball cue was provided on either side. Eye contact (EC) trials started with eye contact without any ball cue; thus, the participants continued to hold eye contact for 4,500 ms, followed by the balls disappearing for 500 ms (not shown in Figure 2).


"Stay tuned": inter-individual neural synchronization during mutual gaze and joint attention.

Saito DN, Tanabe HC, Izuma K, Hayashi MJ, Morito Y, Komeda H, Uchiyama H, Kosaka H, Okazawa H, Fujibayashi Y, Sadato N - Front Integr Neurosci (2010)

Joint attention task. The virtual relationship between two participants (P and Q) in the scanner. Arrows indicate the gaze direction toward the screen. Blue and red rectangles indicate the ball cue. During concordant runs (left columns), participants were required to shift their gaze to the target cued by either ball (by means of color) or eye gaze. Each task trial lasted 5 s. During discordant runs (right columns), participants are asked to shift their gaze to the opposite side of the target. BN, ball-non-share; BS, ball-share; EN, eye-non-share; ES, eye-share; SBNc, simultaneous ball-non-share during concordant run; SBNd, simultaneous ball-non-share during discordant run.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2990457&req=5

Figure 2: Joint attention task. The virtual relationship between two participants (P and Q) in the scanner. Arrows indicate the gaze direction toward the screen. Blue and red rectangles indicate the ball cue. During concordant runs (left columns), participants were required to shift their gaze to the target cued by either ball (by means of color) or eye gaze. Each task trial lasted 5 s. During discordant runs (right columns), participants are asked to shift their gaze to the opposite side of the target. BN, ball-non-share; BS, ball-share; EN, eye-non-share; ES, eye-share; SBNc, simultaneous ball-non-share during concordant run; SBNd, simultaneous ball-non-share during discordant run.
Mentions: In concordant runs, four tasks were configured by three types of the ball cue presentation (Figure 2). As the first type, the ball cue was provided to one participant. Here, following eye contact for 2,000 ms with two red balls in the lower half of the screen, one of the balls in front of one participant (say, P) changed to blue for 2,500 ms. The participant P was required to shift his gaze to the changed ball as soon as possible. The counterpart (say, Q) was asked to gaze at the ball (which from his or her perspective does not change in color) that P attended to. Then, the balls on both sides disappeared for 500 ms, at which point the participants returned to joint eye contact. As participants P and Q watched the same ball target, P underwent ball-cued shared attention (ball-share [BS]) and Q underwent eye-cued shared attention (eye-share [ES]). As the second type, the ball cue was provided to both participants simultaneously. In this case, following eye contact for 2,000 ms with two red balls in the lower half of the screen, one of the balls in front of both participants changed to blue simultaneously, but on different sides, for 2,500 ms. The participants were required to shift their gaze to the changed ball. Thus, both participants underwent simultaneously ball-cued non-shared attention (simultaneous ball-non-share during concordant run [SBNc]). As the third type, no ball cue was provided on either side. Eye contact (EC) trials started with eye contact without any ball cue; thus, the participants continued to hold eye contact for 4,500 ms, followed by the balls disappearing for 500 ms (not shown in Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Averted gaze activated the bilateral occipital pole extending to the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus.After all the task-related effects were modeled out, inter-individual correlation analysis of residual time-courses was performed.Paired subjects showed more prominent correlations than non-paired subjects in the right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting that this region is involved in sharing intention during eye contact that provides the context for joint attention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cerebral Integration, Department of Cerebral Research, National Institute for Physiological Sciences Okazaki, Aichi, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Eye contact provides a communicative link between humans, prompting joint attention. As spontaneous brain activity might have an important role in the coordination of neuronal processing within the brain, their inter-subject synchronization might occur during eye contact. To test this, we conducted simultaneous functional MRI in pairs of adults. Eye contact was maintained at baseline while the subjects engaged in real-time gaze exchange in a joint attention task. Averted gaze activated the bilateral occipital pole extending to the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Following a partner's gaze toward an object activated the left intraparietal sulcus. After all the task-related effects were modeled out, inter-individual correlation analysis of residual time-courses was performed. Paired subjects showed more prominent correlations than non-paired subjects in the right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting that this region is involved in sharing intention during eye contact that provides the context for joint attention.

No MeSH data available.