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The application of exosomes as a nanoscale cancer vaccine.

Tan A, De La Peña H, Seifalian AM - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Bottom Line: However, they are, strictly speaking, not 'true' cancer vaccines as they are prophylactic rather than therapeutic, are only effective against the oncogenic viruses, and do not kill the actual cancer cells.On April 2010, a new prostate cancer vaccine Provenge(®) (sipuleucel-T) was approved by the US FDA, and it is the first approved therapeutic vaccine that utilizes antigen-presenting cell technology involving dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy.Coupled with nanotechnology, engineered exosomes are emerging as new and novel avenues for cancer vaccine development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Cancer is a leading cause of death globally, and it is predicted and projected to continue rising as life expectancy increases. Although patient survival rates for some forms of cancers are high due to clinical advances in treatment protocols, the search for effective cancer vaccines remains the ultimate Rosetta Stone in oncology. Cervarix(®), Gardasil(®), and hepatitis B vaccines are currently employed in preventing certain forms of viral cancers. However, they are, strictly speaking, not 'true' cancer vaccines as they are prophylactic rather than therapeutic, are only effective against the oncogenic viruses, and do not kill the actual cancer cells. On April 2010, a new prostate cancer vaccine Provenge(®) (sipuleucel-T) was approved by the US FDA, and it is the first approved therapeutic vaccine that utilizes antigen-presenting cell technology involving dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that the use of nanoscale particles like exosomes in immunotherapy could form a viable basis for the development of novel cancer vaccines, via antigen-presenting cell technology, to prime the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. Coupled with nanotechnology, engineered exosomes are emerging as new and novel avenues for cancer vaccine development. Here, we review the current knowledge pertaining to exosome technology in immunotherapy and also seek to address the challenges and future directions associated with it, in hopes of bringing this exciting application a step closer toward an effective clinical reality.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Different functions of immature and mature dendritic cells. A) In the absence of inflammation and costimulation, antigen presentation to immature dendritic cells induces tolerance or anergy (lack of an immune response). This results in deletion or induction of a regulatory phenotype of T cells. B) In the presence of inflammation, immature dendritic cells become activated into mature dendritic cells. Antigen presentation in the presence of costimulatory molecules causes clonal expansion of CD4+ (helper) and CD8+ (cytotoxic) T cells and activation of B cells to produce antibodies and NK cells. Copyright © 2005, Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission from Banchereau J, Palucka AK. Dendritic cells as therapeutic vaccines against cancer. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5(4):296–306.
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f2-ijn-5-889: Different functions of immature and mature dendritic cells. A) In the absence of inflammation and costimulation, antigen presentation to immature dendritic cells induces tolerance or anergy (lack of an immune response). This results in deletion or induction of a regulatory phenotype of T cells. B) In the presence of inflammation, immature dendritic cells become activated into mature dendritic cells. Antigen presentation in the presence of costimulatory molecules causes clonal expansion of CD4+ (helper) and CD8+ (cytotoxic) T cells and activation of B cells to produce antibodies and NK cells. Copyright © 2005, Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission from Banchereau J, Palucka AK. Dendritic cells as therapeutic vaccines against cancer. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5(4):296–306.

Mentions: Dendritic cells (or, more accurately, interdigitating dendritic cells) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which would be activated upon encountering a foreign agent and would interact with T cells to elicit an antigen-specific immune response.27 When immature dendritic cells are activated upon stimulation by foreign antigens, they become mature dendritic cells, which are powerful APCs, priming naïve lymphocytes as well as releasing chemokines to attract T cells (Figure 2).24 In contrast to using monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy, which is notorious for its systemic side effects like immunosuppression and hypersensitivity reactions due to by stander effects,28 dendritic cell-based immunotherapy could function as an attractive alternative for cancer treatment as the immune response mounted is more specific.29 Recent evidence shows that artificial APC systems are also emerging as powerful techniques for immunotherapy, and the superior biosafety profile of exosomes has made them an attractive candidate for cancer vaccine development.30


The application of exosomes as a nanoscale cancer vaccine.

Tan A, De La Peña H, Seifalian AM - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Different functions of immature and mature dendritic cells. A) In the absence of inflammation and costimulation, antigen presentation to immature dendritic cells induces tolerance or anergy (lack of an immune response). This results in deletion or induction of a regulatory phenotype of T cells. B) In the presence of inflammation, immature dendritic cells become activated into mature dendritic cells. Antigen presentation in the presence of costimulatory molecules causes clonal expansion of CD4+ (helper) and CD8+ (cytotoxic) T cells and activation of B cells to produce antibodies and NK cells. Copyright © 2005, Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission from Banchereau J, Palucka AK. Dendritic cells as therapeutic vaccines against cancer. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5(4):296–306.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2990382&req=5

f2-ijn-5-889: Different functions of immature and mature dendritic cells. A) In the absence of inflammation and costimulation, antigen presentation to immature dendritic cells induces tolerance or anergy (lack of an immune response). This results in deletion or induction of a regulatory phenotype of T cells. B) In the presence of inflammation, immature dendritic cells become activated into mature dendritic cells. Antigen presentation in the presence of costimulatory molecules causes clonal expansion of CD4+ (helper) and CD8+ (cytotoxic) T cells and activation of B cells to produce antibodies and NK cells. Copyright © 2005, Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission from Banchereau J, Palucka AK. Dendritic cells as therapeutic vaccines against cancer. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5(4):296–306.
Mentions: Dendritic cells (or, more accurately, interdigitating dendritic cells) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which would be activated upon encountering a foreign agent and would interact with T cells to elicit an antigen-specific immune response.27 When immature dendritic cells are activated upon stimulation by foreign antigens, they become mature dendritic cells, which are powerful APCs, priming naïve lymphocytes as well as releasing chemokines to attract T cells (Figure 2).24 In contrast to using monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy, which is notorious for its systemic side effects like immunosuppression and hypersensitivity reactions due to by stander effects,28 dendritic cell-based immunotherapy could function as an attractive alternative for cancer treatment as the immune response mounted is more specific.29 Recent evidence shows that artificial APC systems are also emerging as powerful techniques for immunotherapy, and the superior biosafety profile of exosomes has made them an attractive candidate for cancer vaccine development.30

Bottom Line: However, they are, strictly speaking, not 'true' cancer vaccines as they are prophylactic rather than therapeutic, are only effective against the oncogenic viruses, and do not kill the actual cancer cells.On April 2010, a new prostate cancer vaccine Provenge(®) (sipuleucel-T) was approved by the US FDA, and it is the first approved therapeutic vaccine that utilizes antigen-presenting cell technology involving dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy.Coupled with nanotechnology, engineered exosomes are emerging as new and novel avenues for cancer vaccine development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Cancer is a leading cause of death globally, and it is predicted and projected to continue rising as life expectancy increases. Although patient survival rates for some forms of cancers are high due to clinical advances in treatment protocols, the search for effective cancer vaccines remains the ultimate Rosetta Stone in oncology. Cervarix(®), Gardasil(®), and hepatitis B vaccines are currently employed in preventing certain forms of viral cancers. However, they are, strictly speaking, not 'true' cancer vaccines as they are prophylactic rather than therapeutic, are only effective against the oncogenic viruses, and do not kill the actual cancer cells. On April 2010, a new prostate cancer vaccine Provenge(®) (sipuleucel-T) was approved by the US FDA, and it is the first approved therapeutic vaccine that utilizes antigen-presenting cell technology involving dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that the use of nanoscale particles like exosomes in immunotherapy could form a viable basis for the development of novel cancer vaccines, via antigen-presenting cell technology, to prime the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. Coupled with nanotechnology, engineered exosomes are emerging as new and novel avenues for cancer vaccine development. Here, we review the current knowledge pertaining to exosome technology in immunotherapy and also seek to address the challenges and future directions associated with it, in hopes of bringing this exciting application a step closer toward an effective clinical reality.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus