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The application of exosomes as a nanoscale cancer vaccine.

Tan A, De La Peña H, Seifalian AM - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Bottom Line: However, they are, strictly speaking, not 'true' cancer vaccines as they are prophylactic rather than therapeutic, are only effective against the oncogenic viruses, and do not kill the actual cancer cells.On April 2010, a new prostate cancer vaccine Provenge(®) (sipuleucel-T) was approved by the US FDA, and it is the first approved therapeutic vaccine that utilizes antigen-presenting cell technology involving dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy.Coupled with nanotechnology, engineered exosomes are emerging as new and novel avenues for cancer vaccine development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Cancer is a leading cause of death globally, and it is predicted and projected to continue rising as life expectancy increases. Although patient survival rates for some forms of cancers are high due to clinical advances in treatment protocols, the search for effective cancer vaccines remains the ultimate Rosetta Stone in oncology. Cervarix(®), Gardasil(®), and hepatitis B vaccines are currently employed in preventing certain forms of viral cancers. However, they are, strictly speaking, not 'true' cancer vaccines as they are prophylactic rather than therapeutic, are only effective against the oncogenic viruses, and do not kill the actual cancer cells. On April 2010, a new prostate cancer vaccine Provenge(®) (sipuleucel-T) was approved by the US FDA, and it is the first approved therapeutic vaccine that utilizes antigen-presenting cell technology involving dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that the use of nanoscale particles like exosomes in immunotherapy could form a viable basis for the development of novel cancer vaccines, via antigen-presenting cell technology, to prime the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. Coupled with nanotechnology, engineered exosomes are emerging as new and novel avenues for cancer vaccine development. Here, we review the current knowledge pertaining to exosome technology in immunotherapy and also seek to address the challenges and future directions associated with it, in hopes of bringing this exciting application a step closer toward an effective clinical reality.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Biological delivery systems. A) Bacteria can be used for gene delivery, and it is used in cancer gene therapy, DNA vaccination, and treatment of some genetic diseases. B) Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they can be genetically engineered and introduced into bacteria for genetic replication. C) Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be engineered from plasmids coding for viral structure proteins. These VLPs can then be linked to antigens and introduced into the body to elicit an immune response. D) Erythrocyte ghosts are red blood cells that have their cytoplasmic contents removed, and they can be used as vehicles for drug delivery. E) Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles released from dendritic cells and tumor cells, and they can be purified and loaded with antigens and introduced into the body to elicit a cell-specific antitumor response. Copyright © 2009, Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission from Seow Y, Wood MJ. Biological gene delivery vehicles: beyond viral vectors. Mol Ther. 2009;17(5):767–777.
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f1-ijn-5-889: Biological delivery systems. A) Bacteria can be used for gene delivery, and it is used in cancer gene therapy, DNA vaccination, and treatment of some genetic diseases. B) Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they can be genetically engineered and introduced into bacteria for genetic replication. C) Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be engineered from plasmids coding for viral structure proteins. These VLPs can then be linked to antigens and introduced into the body to elicit an immune response. D) Erythrocyte ghosts are red blood cells that have their cytoplasmic contents removed, and they can be used as vehicles for drug delivery. E) Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles released from dendritic cells and tumor cells, and they can be purified and loaded with antigens and introduced into the body to elicit a cell-specific antitumor response. Copyright © 2009, Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission from Seow Y, Wood MJ. Biological gene delivery vehicles: beyond viral vectors. Mol Ther. 2009;17(5):767–777.

Mentions: The advent of nanotechnology has generated an immense interest among researchers in its application to medicine. A major goal of the utilization of nanoscale drug delivery systems is to improve its therapeutic index by increasing its potency at specific sites while simultaneously reducing systemic toxicity.8 Nanoscale drug delivery systems approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in cancer treatments are currently available, for example, Doxil® (doxorubicin encapsulated in liposomes)9 and Abraxane® (paclitaxel attached to nanoparticles).10 In addition to being novel drug delivery systems, nanoscale particles can also be specifically engineered to stimulate the immune system, which could form an attractive basis for cancer vaccine development.11 There is increasing evidence that nanoscale particles, for example, recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs), inert nanobeads, and immunostimulating complexes, are being utilized in cancer vaccine development due to their effectiveness at eliciting cellular and humoral immune responses.12 It has been demonstrated that synthetic nanoparticles could be conjugated to biological molecules (eg, exosomes) and could potentially be used as an effective vaccine delivery system.13 Furthermore, there is a growing interest in the utilization of biological molecule delivery systems that serve as conduits to deliver genetic material, drug, or antigen into the body, and attractive candidates are liposomes, VLPs, erythrocyte ghosts, and exosomes (Figure 1).14


The application of exosomes as a nanoscale cancer vaccine.

Tan A, De La Peña H, Seifalian AM - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Biological delivery systems. A) Bacteria can be used for gene delivery, and it is used in cancer gene therapy, DNA vaccination, and treatment of some genetic diseases. B) Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they can be genetically engineered and introduced into bacteria for genetic replication. C) Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be engineered from plasmids coding for viral structure proteins. These VLPs can then be linked to antigens and introduced into the body to elicit an immune response. D) Erythrocyte ghosts are red blood cells that have their cytoplasmic contents removed, and they can be used as vehicles for drug delivery. E) Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles released from dendritic cells and tumor cells, and they can be purified and loaded with antigens and introduced into the body to elicit a cell-specific antitumor response. Copyright © 2009, Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission from Seow Y, Wood MJ. Biological gene delivery vehicles: beyond viral vectors. Mol Ther. 2009;17(5):767–777.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2990382&req=5

f1-ijn-5-889: Biological delivery systems. A) Bacteria can be used for gene delivery, and it is used in cancer gene therapy, DNA vaccination, and treatment of some genetic diseases. B) Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they can be genetically engineered and introduced into bacteria for genetic replication. C) Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be engineered from plasmids coding for viral structure proteins. These VLPs can then be linked to antigens and introduced into the body to elicit an immune response. D) Erythrocyte ghosts are red blood cells that have their cytoplasmic contents removed, and they can be used as vehicles for drug delivery. E) Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles released from dendritic cells and tumor cells, and they can be purified and loaded with antigens and introduced into the body to elicit a cell-specific antitumor response. Copyright © 2009, Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission from Seow Y, Wood MJ. Biological gene delivery vehicles: beyond viral vectors. Mol Ther. 2009;17(5):767–777.
Mentions: The advent of nanotechnology has generated an immense interest among researchers in its application to medicine. A major goal of the utilization of nanoscale drug delivery systems is to improve its therapeutic index by increasing its potency at specific sites while simultaneously reducing systemic toxicity.8 Nanoscale drug delivery systems approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in cancer treatments are currently available, for example, Doxil® (doxorubicin encapsulated in liposomes)9 and Abraxane® (paclitaxel attached to nanoparticles).10 In addition to being novel drug delivery systems, nanoscale particles can also be specifically engineered to stimulate the immune system, which could form an attractive basis for cancer vaccine development.11 There is increasing evidence that nanoscale particles, for example, recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs), inert nanobeads, and immunostimulating complexes, are being utilized in cancer vaccine development due to their effectiveness at eliciting cellular and humoral immune responses.12 It has been demonstrated that synthetic nanoparticles could be conjugated to biological molecules (eg, exosomes) and could potentially be used as an effective vaccine delivery system.13 Furthermore, there is a growing interest in the utilization of biological molecule delivery systems that serve as conduits to deliver genetic material, drug, or antigen into the body, and attractive candidates are liposomes, VLPs, erythrocyte ghosts, and exosomes (Figure 1).14

Bottom Line: However, they are, strictly speaking, not 'true' cancer vaccines as they are prophylactic rather than therapeutic, are only effective against the oncogenic viruses, and do not kill the actual cancer cells.On April 2010, a new prostate cancer vaccine Provenge(®) (sipuleucel-T) was approved by the US FDA, and it is the first approved therapeutic vaccine that utilizes antigen-presenting cell technology involving dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy.Coupled with nanotechnology, engineered exosomes are emerging as new and novel avenues for cancer vaccine development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Cancer is a leading cause of death globally, and it is predicted and projected to continue rising as life expectancy increases. Although patient survival rates for some forms of cancers are high due to clinical advances in treatment protocols, the search for effective cancer vaccines remains the ultimate Rosetta Stone in oncology. Cervarix(®), Gardasil(®), and hepatitis B vaccines are currently employed in preventing certain forms of viral cancers. However, they are, strictly speaking, not 'true' cancer vaccines as they are prophylactic rather than therapeutic, are only effective against the oncogenic viruses, and do not kill the actual cancer cells. On April 2010, a new prostate cancer vaccine Provenge(®) (sipuleucel-T) was approved by the US FDA, and it is the first approved therapeutic vaccine that utilizes antigen-presenting cell technology involving dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that the use of nanoscale particles like exosomes in immunotherapy could form a viable basis for the development of novel cancer vaccines, via antigen-presenting cell technology, to prime the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. Coupled with nanotechnology, engineered exosomes are emerging as new and novel avenues for cancer vaccine development. Here, we review the current knowledge pertaining to exosome technology in immunotherapy and also seek to address the challenges and future directions associated with it, in hopes of bringing this exciting application a step closer toward an effective clinical reality.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus