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Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants.

Robbins PS, Alm SR, Armstrong C, Averill AL, Baker TC, Bauernfiend RJ, Baxendale FP, Braman SK, Brandenburg RL, Cash DB, Couch GJ, Cowles RS, Crocker RL, DeLamar ZD, Dittl TG, Fitzpatrick SM, Flanders KL, Forgatsch T, Gibb TJ, Gill BD, Gilrein DO, Gorsuch CS, Hammond AM, Hastings PD, Held DW, Heller PR, Hiskes RT, Holliman JL, Hudson WG, Klein MG, Krischik VL, Lee DJ, Linn CE, Luce NJ, MacKenzie KE, Mannion CM, Polavarapu S, Potter DA, Roelofs WL, Royals BM, Salsbury GA, Schiff NM, Shetlar DJ, Skinner M, Sparks BL, Sutschek JA, Sutschek TP, Swier SR, Sylvia MM, Vickers NJ, Vittum PJ, Weidman R, Weber DC, Williamson RC, Villani MG - J. Insect Sci. (2006)

Bottom Line: Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia.At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve.In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cornell University, New York State Agriculture Experiment Station, Geneva, NY, USA. psr1@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester.

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♂ capture curves for Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte), northern genitalic form (n = 20,460. Not all locations shown in this figure.)
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i1536-2442-6-39-1-f138: ♂ capture curves for Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte), northern genitalic form (n = 20,460. Not all locations shown in this figure.)

Mentions: The manner in which the different forms of the P. anxia male sex pheromone response profiles are distributed across North America reveals important information. The five locations yielding response profiles (10 site-years) from P. anxia males that were captured in blends of both L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester are found only in southeast Massachusetts and Rhode Island (see Figures 66a, 66b, 66c, 66d, and 66e including all the MA Carver, MA Lakeville, MA Plympton #1, MA Plympton #2 and RI Kingston sites). Surrounding these five locations are trapping sites to the west (as far west as Wisconsin) and to the north (as far north as the provinces of Nova Scotia and Ontario) that represent those populations of P. anxia males that responded to only L-valine methyl ester or to only L-isoleucine methyl ester, but did not require a blend of the two for capture (Figure 138). The male response curves generated by the beetle captures at those trapping sites yield a distribution map that is patchy in terms of unequal distributions of the two populations. Some sites harbor only one of the two populations, while other sites hold both, thus generating a bimodal distribution curve.


Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants.

Robbins PS, Alm SR, Armstrong C, Averill AL, Baker TC, Bauernfiend RJ, Baxendale FP, Braman SK, Brandenburg RL, Cash DB, Couch GJ, Cowles RS, Crocker RL, DeLamar ZD, Dittl TG, Fitzpatrick SM, Flanders KL, Forgatsch T, Gibb TJ, Gill BD, Gilrein DO, Gorsuch CS, Hammond AM, Hastings PD, Held DW, Heller PR, Hiskes RT, Holliman JL, Hudson WG, Klein MG, Krischik VL, Lee DJ, Linn CE, Luce NJ, MacKenzie KE, Mannion CM, Polavarapu S, Potter DA, Roelofs WL, Royals BM, Salsbury GA, Schiff NM, Shetlar DJ, Skinner M, Sparks BL, Sutschek JA, Sutschek TP, Swier SR, Sylvia MM, Vickers NJ, Vittum PJ, Weidman R, Weber DC, Williamson RC, Villani MG - J. Insect Sci. (2006)

♂ capture curves for Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte), northern genitalic form (n = 20,460. Not all locations shown in this figure.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2990335&req=5

i1536-2442-6-39-1-f138: ♂ capture curves for Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte), northern genitalic form (n = 20,460. Not all locations shown in this figure.)
Mentions: The manner in which the different forms of the P. anxia male sex pheromone response profiles are distributed across North America reveals important information. The five locations yielding response profiles (10 site-years) from P. anxia males that were captured in blends of both L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester are found only in southeast Massachusetts and Rhode Island (see Figures 66a, 66b, 66c, 66d, and 66e including all the MA Carver, MA Lakeville, MA Plympton #1, MA Plympton #2 and RI Kingston sites). Surrounding these five locations are trapping sites to the west (as far west as Wisconsin) and to the north (as far north as the provinces of Nova Scotia and Ontario) that represent those populations of P. anxia males that responded to only L-valine methyl ester or to only L-isoleucine methyl ester, but did not require a blend of the two for capture (Figure 138). The male response curves generated by the beetle captures at those trapping sites yield a distribution map that is patchy in terms of unequal distributions of the two populations. Some sites harbor only one of the two populations, while other sites hold both, thus generating a bimodal distribution curve.

Bottom Line: Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia.At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve.In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cornell University, New York State Agriculture Experiment Station, Geneva, NY, USA. psr1@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester.

Show MeSH