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Prevalence and associated factors of smoking among secondary school students in Harare Zimbabwe.

Bandason T, Rusakaniko S - Tob Induc Dis (2010)

Bottom Line: The prevalence of smoking was estimated and the comparison of prevalence was performed according to its associated factors.Prevalence of ever-smoked among males (37.8%) was significantly (p < 0.001) much higher than among females (18.5%).Interventions to stop or reduce the habit should be implemented now and future studies should monitor and evaluate the impact of the interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe. tbandason@brti.co.zw.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a growing epidemic of tobacco use among adolescents in the developing world. However, there is no up to date information on smoking among adolescents. Although in the developing world concerted efforts are being made to control tobacco use, Zimbabwe does not have any documented tobacco control programmes. We estimated the prevalence of smoking among school going secondary school students in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Methods: A 3-stage stratified random sampling was employed to select six participating schools and students. A descriptive analysis was conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the participants. The prevalence of smoking was estimated and the comparison of prevalence was performed according to its associated factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for smoking.

Results: 650 students with a mean age 16 years and 47% of them female participated. Prevalence of ever-smoked was 28.8% (95% CI 25.3 to 32.3). Prevalence of ever-smoked among males (37.8%) was significantly (p < 0.001) much higher than among females (18.5%). In the multivariate analysis, smoking was found to be statistically associated with having friends that smoke (OR 2.8), getting involved in physical fights (OR 2.3), alcohol use (OR 5.7), marijuana use (OR 8.1) and having had sexual intercourse (OR 4.4).

Conclusions: The study provides recent estimates of prevalence of smoking, and indicates that there is still a high prevalence of smoking among urban secondary school students. Exposure to friends who smoke, risky behaviour like substance abuse, premarital sex and physical fights are significantly associated with smoking. Interventions to stop or reduce the habit should be implemented now and future studies should monitor and evaluate the impact of the interventions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Participant Flow Chart.
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Figure 1: Participant Flow Chart.

Mentions: Secondary schools registered with the Ministry of Education were stratified by type, that is, on the basis of whether they are government or private and their geographic location, that is, located in low density, medium density and high density. Six schools were selected randomly using probability proportional to size technique, where size was the number of schools by type and location (Figure 1).


Prevalence and associated factors of smoking among secondary school students in Harare Zimbabwe.

Bandason T, Rusakaniko S - Tob Induc Dis (2010)

Participant Flow Chart.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2984581&req=5

Figure 1: Participant Flow Chart.
Mentions: Secondary schools registered with the Ministry of Education were stratified by type, that is, on the basis of whether they are government or private and their geographic location, that is, located in low density, medium density and high density. Six schools were selected randomly using probability proportional to size technique, where size was the number of schools by type and location (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The prevalence of smoking was estimated and the comparison of prevalence was performed according to its associated factors.Prevalence of ever-smoked among males (37.8%) was significantly (p < 0.001) much higher than among females (18.5%).Interventions to stop or reduce the habit should be implemented now and future studies should monitor and evaluate the impact of the interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe. tbandason@brti.co.zw.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a growing epidemic of tobacco use among adolescents in the developing world. However, there is no up to date information on smoking among adolescents. Although in the developing world concerted efforts are being made to control tobacco use, Zimbabwe does not have any documented tobacco control programmes. We estimated the prevalence of smoking among school going secondary school students in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Methods: A 3-stage stratified random sampling was employed to select six participating schools and students. A descriptive analysis was conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the participants. The prevalence of smoking was estimated and the comparison of prevalence was performed according to its associated factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for smoking.

Results: 650 students with a mean age 16 years and 47% of them female participated. Prevalence of ever-smoked was 28.8% (95% CI 25.3 to 32.3). Prevalence of ever-smoked among males (37.8%) was significantly (p < 0.001) much higher than among females (18.5%). In the multivariate analysis, smoking was found to be statistically associated with having friends that smoke (OR 2.8), getting involved in physical fights (OR 2.3), alcohol use (OR 5.7), marijuana use (OR 8.1) and having had sexual intercourse (OR 4.4).

Conclusions: The study provides recent estimates of prevalence of smoking, and indicates that there is still a high prevalence of smoking among urban secondary school students. Exposure to friends who smoke, risky behaviour like substance abuse, premarital sex and physical fights are significantly associated with smoking. Interventions to stop or reduce the habit should be implemented now and future studies should monitor and evaluate the impact of the interventions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus