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Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

Smallegange RC, Schmied WH, van Roey KJ, Verhulst NO, Spitzen J, Mukabana WR, Takken W - Malar. J. (2010)

Bottom Line: Carbon dioxide (CO2) plays an important role in the host-seeking process of opportunistic, zoophilic and anthropophilic mosquito species and is, therefore, commonly added to mosquito sampling tools.The laboratory and semi-field data were analysed by a χ2-test, the field data by GLM.In addition, CO2 concentrations produced by yeast-sugar solutions were measured over time.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, P,O, Box 8031, 6700 EH, Wageningen, The Netherlands. renate.smallegange@wur.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: Carbon dioxide (CO2) plays an important role in the host-seeking process of opportunistic, zoophilic and anthropophilic mosquito species and is, therefore, commonly added to mosquito sampling tools. The African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is attracted to human volatiles augmented by CO2. This study investigated whether CO2, usually supplied from gas cylinders acquired from commercial industry, could be replaced by CO2 derived from fermenting yeast (yeast-produced CO2).

Methods: Trapping experiments were conducted in the laboratory, semi-field and field, with An. gambiae s.s. as the target species. MM-X traps were baited with volatiles produced by mixtures of yeast, sugar and water, prepared in 1.5, 5 or 25 L bottles. Catches were compared with traps baited with industrial CO2. The additional effect of human odours was also examined. In the laboratory and semi-field facility dual-choice experiments were conducted. The effect of traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 on the number of mosquitoes entering an African house was studied in the MalariaSphere. Carbon dioxide baited traps, placed outside human dwellings, were also tested in an African village setting. The laboratory and semi-field data were analysed by a χ2-test, the field data by GLM. In addition, CO2 concentrations produced by yeast-sugar solutions were measured over time.

Results: Traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 caught significantly more mosquitoes than unbaited traps (up to 34 h post mixing the ingredients) and also significantly more than traps baited with industrial CO2, both in the laboratory and semi-field. Adding yeast-produced CO2 to traps baited with human odour significantly increased trap catches. In the MalariaSphere, outdoor traps baited with yeast-produced or industrial CO2 + human odour reduced house entry of mosquitoes with a human host sleeping under a bed net indoors. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was not caught during the field trials. However, traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 caught similar numbers of Anopheles arabiensis as traps baited with industrial CO2. Addition of human odour increased trap catches.

Conclusions: Yeast-produced CO2 can effectively replace industrial CO2 for sampling of An. gambiae s.s.. This will significantly reduce costs and allow sustainable mass-application of odour-baited devices for mosquito sampling in remote areas.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagram summarising industrial and yeast-produced CO2 concentrations measured at different distances of a MM-X trap. Blue circle: 400-500 ppm; green rectangular: 500-600 ppm; red triangle: > 600 ppm; 1, 2 and 4: 1½, 25½ and 49½ h post mixing the yeast-sugar solution (17.5 g yeast+250 g sugar+2½ L water in each 5 L bottle); C: industrial CO2 (5%, 250 ml/min); A: all (yeast-produced and industrial) CO2 sources.
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Figure 3: Diagram summarising industrial and yeast-produced CO2 concentrations measured at different distances of a MM-X trap. Blue circle: 400-500 ppm; green rectangular: 500-600 ppm; red triangle: > 600 ppm; 1, 2 and 4: 1½, 25½ and 49½ h post mixing the yeast-sugar solution (17.5 g yeast+250 g sugar+2½ L water in each 5 L bottle); C: industrial CO2 (5%, 250 ml/min); A: all (yeast-produced and industrial) CO2 sources.

Mentions: The carbon dioxide concentrations measured at different distances from a MM-X trap are summarized in Figure 3. It shows clearly the distance effect on the concentration of CO2, the further away from the MM-X trap the lower the CO2 concentration, independent of its source (CO2 cylinder or yeast-sugar solution 1½, 25½ or 49½ h post mixing). Concentrations measured at a distance of 200 cm or at a height of 100 cm were between 400 and 500 ppm. Measurements taken 1½ hours after mixing the yeast-sugar solution, within or close to the trap (0 and 30 cm from the trap, 5 cm above ground level) also showed CO2 levels between 400 and 500 ppm.


Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

Smallegange RC, Schmied WH, van Roey KJ, Verhulst NO, Spitzen J, Mukabana WR, Takken W - Malar. J. (2010)

Diagram summarising industrial and yeast-produced CO2 concentrations measured at different distances of a MM-X trap. Blue circle: 400-500 ppm; green rectangular: 500-600 ppm; red triangle: > 600 ppm; 1, 2 and 4: 1½, 25½ and 49½ h post mixing the yeast-sugar solution (17.5 g yeast+250 g sugar+2½ L water in each 5 L bottle); C: industrial CO2 (5%, 250 ml/min); A: all (yeast-produced and industrial) CO2 sources.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2984570&req=5

Figure 3: Diagram summarising industrial and yeast-produced CO2 concentrations measured at different distances of a MM-X trap. Blue circle: 400-500 ppm; green rectangular: 500-600 ppm; red triangle: > 600 ppm; 1, 2 and 4: 1½, 25½ and 49½ h post mixing the yeast-sugar solution (17.5 g yeast+250 g sugar+2½ L water in each 5 L bottle); C: industrial CO2 (5%, 250 ml/min); A: all (yeast-produced and industrial) CO2 sources.
Mentions: The carbon dioxide concentrations measured at different distances from a MM-X trap are summarized in Figure 3. It shows clearly the distance effect on the concentration of CO2, the further away from the MM-X trap the lower the CO2 concentration, independent of its source (CO2 cylinder or yeast-sugar solution 1½, 25½ or 49½ h post mixing). Concentrations measured at a distance of 200 cm or at a height of 100 cm were between 400 and 500 ppm. Measurements taken 1½ hours after mixing the yeast-sugar solution, within or close to the trap (0 and 30 cm from the trap, 5 cm above ground level) also showed CO2 levels between 400 and 500 ppm.

Bottom Line: Carbon dioxide (CO2) plays an important role in the host-seeking process of opportunistic, zoophilic and anthropophilic mosquito species and is, therefore, commonly added to mosquito sampling tools.The laboratory and semi-field data were analysed by a χ2-test, the field data by GLM.In addition, CO2 concentrations produced by yeast-sugar solutions were measured over time.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, P,O, Box 8031, 6700 EH, Wageningen, The Netherlands. renate.smallegange@wur.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: Carbon dioxide (CO2) plays an important role in the host-seeking process of opportunistic, zoophilic and anthropophilic mosquito species and is, therefore, commonly added to mosquito sampling tools. The African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is attracted to human volatiles augmented by CO2. This study investigated whether CO2, usually supplied from gas cylinders acquired from commercial industry, could be replaced by CO2 derived from fermenting yeast (yeast-produced CO2).

Methods: Trapping experiments were conducted in the laboratory, semi-field and field, with An. gambiae s.s. as the target species. MM-X traps were baited with volatiles produced by mixtures of yeast, sugar and water, prepared in 1.5, 5 or 25 L bottles. Catches were compared with traps baited with industrial CO2. The additional effect of human odours was also examined. In the laboratory and semi-field facility dual-choice experiments were conducted. The effect of traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 on the number of mosquitoes entering an African house was studied in the MalariaSphere. Carbon dioxide baited traps, placed outside human dwellings, were also tested in an African village setting. The laboratory and semi-field data were analysed by a χ2-test, the field data by GLM. In addition, CO2 concentrations produced by yeast-sugar solutions were measured over time.

Results: Traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 caught significantly more mosquitoes than unbaited traps (up to 34 h post mixing the ingredients) and also significantly more than traps baited with industrial CO2, both in the laboratory and semi-field. Adding yeast-produced CO2 to traps baited with human odour significantly increased trap catches. In the MalariaSphere, outdoor traps baited with yeast-produced or industrial CO2 + human odour reduced house entry of mosquitoes with a human host sleeping under a bed net indoors. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was not caught during the field trials. However, traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 caught similar numbers of Anopheles arabiensis as traps baited with industrial CO2. Addition of human odour increased trap catches.

Conclusions: Yeast-produced CO2 can effectively replace industrial CO2 for sampling of An. gambiae s.s.. This will significantly reduce costs and allow sustainable mass-application of odour-baited devices for mosquito sampling in remote areas.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus