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Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging of the brain, made easy.

Huisman TA - Cancer Imaging (2010)

Bottom Line: In addition, DWI/DTI allows exploring the microarchitecture of the brain.A detailed knowledge of the basics of DWI/DTI is mandatory to better understand pathology encountered and to avoid misinterpretation of typical DWI/DTI artifacts.This article reviews the basic physics of DWI/DTI exemplified by several classical clinical cases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division Pediatric Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287-0842, USA. thuisma1@jhmi.edu

ABSTRACT
Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DWI/DTI) has revolutionized clinical neuroimaging. Pathology may be detected earlier and with greater specificity than with conventional magnetic resonance imaging sequences. In addition, DWI/DTI allows exploring the microarchitecture of the brain. A detailed knowledge of the basics of DWI/DTI is mandatory to better understand pathology encountered and to avoid misinterpretation of typical DWI/DTI artifacts. This article reviews the basic physics of DWI/DTI exemplified by several classical clinical cases.

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Graphical display of water molecules moving at different rates through the gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The effective distance that water molecules travel in gray matter is smaller than in CSF (represented by the magnitude of the red arrow). The difference in travelled diffusion distance versus time is displayed in the lower graph. The faster the molecules move, the more distance is travelled, the more signal loss will occur if diffusion gradients are applied. Consequently the signal loss in the CSF is higher (hypointense) compared with the signal loss in the gray matter (hyperintense relative to the CSF).
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Figure 1: Graphical display of water molecules moving at different rates through the gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The effective distance that water molecules travel in gray matter is smaller than in CSF (represented by the magnitude of the red arrow). The difference in travelled diffusion distance versus time is displayed in the lower graph. The faster the molecules move, the more distance is travelled, the more signal loss will occur if diffusion gradients are applied. Consequently the signal loss in the CSF is higher (hypointense) compared with the signal loss in the gray matter (hyperintense relative to the CSF).

Mentions: DWI MR imaging provides image contrast based on differences in the magnitude of diffusion of water molecules within the brain. Diffusion represents the random thermal movement of molecules, also known as Brownian motion. Diffusion within the brain is determined by a variety of factors including the type of molecule under investigation, the temperature and the microenvironmental architecture in which the diffusion takes place. For example, diffusion of molecules within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is less limited than diffusion of molecules within the intra- and intercellular space. By using the appropriate MR sequences that are sensitive for diffusion, these differences in diffusion rates (magnitude of diffusion) can be translated into image contrast (Fig. 1). Quantitative maps that display the spatial distribution of the diffusion rate within the brain are generated.Figure 1


Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging of the brain, made easy.

Huisman TA - Cancer Imaging (2010)

Graphical display of water molecules moving at different rates through the gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The effective distance that water molecules travel in gray matter is smaller than in CSF (represented by the magnitude of the red arrow). The difference in travelled diffusion distance versus time is displayed in the lower graph. The faster the molecules move, the more distance is travelled, the more signal loss will occur if diffusion gradients are applied. Consequently the signal loss in the CSF is higher (hypointense) compared with the signal loss in the gray matter (hyperintense relative to the CSF).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2967146&req=5

Figure 1: Graphical display of water molecules moving at different rates through the gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The effective distance that water molecules travel in gray matter is smaller than in CSF (represented by the magnitude of the red arrow). The difference in travelled diffusion distance versus time is displayed in the lower graph. The faster the molecules move, the more distance is travelled, the more signal loss will occur if diffusion gradients are applied. Consequently the signal loss in the CSF is higher (hypointense) compared with the signal loss in the gray matter (hyperintense relative to the CSF).
Mentions: DWI MR imaging provides image contrast based on differences in the magnitude of diffusion of water molecules within the brain. Diffusion represents the random thermal movement of molecules, also known as Brownian motion. Diffusion within the brain is determined by a variety of factors including the type of molecule under investigation, the temperature and the microenvironmental architecture in which the diffusion takes place. For example, diffusion of molecules within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is less limited than diffusion of molecules within the intra- and intercellular space. By using the appropriate MR sequences that are sensitive for diffusion, these differences in diffusion rates (magnitude of diffusion) can be translated into image contrast (Fig. 1). Quantitative maps that display the spatial distribution of the diffusion rate within the brain are generated.Figure 1

Bottom Line: In addition, DWI/DTI allows exploring the microarchitecture of the brain.A detailed knowledge of the basics of DWI/DTI is mandatory to better understand pathology encountered and to avoid misinterpretation of typical DWI/DTI artifacts.This article reviews the basic physics of DWI/DTI exemplified by several classical clinical cases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division Pediatric Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287-0842, USA. thuisma1@jhmi.edu

ABSTRACT
Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DWI/DTI) has revolutionized clinical neuroimaging. Pathology may be detected earlier and with greater specificity than with conventional magnetic resonance imaging sequences. In addition, DWI/DTI allows exploring the microarchitecture of the brain. A detailed knowledge of the basics of DWI/DTI is mandatory to better understand pathology encountered and to avoid misinterpretation of typical DWI/DTI artifacts. This article reviews the basic physics of DWI/DTI exemplified by several classical clinical cases.

Show MeSH