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Self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms in Southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.

Sapkota AR, Coker ME, Rosenberg Goldstein RE, Atkinson NL, Sweet SJ, Sopeju PO, Ojo MT, Otivhia E, Ayepola OO, Olajuyigbe OO, Shireman L, Pottinger PS, Ojo KK - BMC Public Health (2010)

Bottom Line: Factors associated with this usage were: lower levels of education (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1, p-value: 0.03); non-science major (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50, p-value: 0.04); usage of analgesics (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.07-4.86, p-value: <0.001); and mild to extreme heavy bleeding (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.01-2.67, p-value: 0.05) and pimples/acne (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54, p-value: 0.06).This practice could provide monthly, low-dose exposures to antibiotics among users.Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impacts of self-medication on student health.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland College Park, School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA. ars@umd.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Self-medication with antibiotics is an important factor contributing to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among university women in Southwest Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to female undergraduate and graduate students (n = 706) at four universities in Southwest Nigeria in 2008. The universities were selected by convenience and the study samples within each university were randomly selected cluster samples. The survey was self-administered and included questions pertaining to menstrual symptoms, analgesic and antibiotic use patterns, and demographics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression.

Results: The response rate was 95.4%. Eighty-six percent (95% CI: 83-88%) of participants experienced menstrual symptoms, and 39% (95% CI: 36-43%) reported using analgesics to treat them. Overall, 24% (95% CI: 21-27%) of participants reported self-medicated use of antibiotics to treat the following menstrual symptoms: cramps, bloating, heavy bleeding, headaches, pimples/acne, moodiness, tender breasts, backache, joint and muscle pain. Factors associated with this usage were: lower levels of education (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1, p-value: 0.03); non-science major (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50, p-value: 0.04); usage of analgesics (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.07-4.86, p-value: <0.001); and mild to extreme heavy bleeding (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.01-2.67, p-value: 0.05) and pimples/acne (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54, p-value: 0.06). Ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were used to treat the most symptoms. Doctors or nurses (6%, 95% CI: 4-7%), friends (6%, 95% CI: 4-7%) and family members (7%, 95% CI: 5-8%) were most likely to recommend the use of antibiotics for menstrual symptoms, while these drugs were most often obtained from local chemists or pharmacists (10.2%, 95% CI: 8-12%).

Conclusions: This is the first formal study to report that approximately 1 out of 4 university women surveyed in Southwest Nigeria self-medicate with antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms. This practice could provide monthly, low-dose exposures to antibiotics among users. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impacts of self-medication on student health.

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Prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among University women in Southwest Nigeria by major area of study and symptoms.
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Figure 1: Prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among University women in Southwest Nigeria by major area of study and symptoms.

Mentions: Overall, 24% (95% CI: 21% to 27%) of the study population reported self-medicating with antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms in the past three months. The mean age when study participants first started taking antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms was 15.7 ± 2.96 years. Interestingly, the prevalence of self-medicated antibiotic use for menstrual symptoms varied depending on education level (Table 2). In addition, individuals who were non-science majors were more likely to use antibiotics for menstrual symptoms compared with lab science, public health or medicine majors (Table 2, Figure 1). Study participants who used any pain-relieving medications (e.g. aspirin, ibuprofen) to treat menstrual symptoms were more likely to use antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms than those who did not use any pain relievers (Table 2).


Self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms in Southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.

Sapkota AR, Coker ME, Rosenberg Goldstein RE, Atkinson NL, Sweet SJ, Sopeju PO, Ojo MT, Otivhia E, Ayepola OO, Olajuyigbe OO, Shireman L, Pottinger PS, Ojo KK - BMC Public Health (2010)

Prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among University women in Southwest Nigeria by major area of study and symptoms.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2965722&req=5

Figure 1: Prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among University women in Southwest Nigeria by major area of study and symptoms.
Mentions: Overall, 24% (95% CI: 21% to 27%) of the study population reported self-medicating with antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms in the past three months. The mean age when study participants first started taking antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms was 15.7 ± 2.96 years. Interestingly, the prevalence of self-medicated antibiotic use for menstrual symptoms varied depending on education level (Table 2). In addition, individuals who were non-science majors were more likely to use antibiotics for menstrual symptoms compared with lab science, public health or medicine majors (Table 2, Figure 1). Study participants who used any pain-relieving medications (e.g. aspirin, ibuprofen) to treat menstrual symptoms were more likely to use antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms than those who did not use any pain relievers (Table 2).

Bottom Line: Factors associated with this usage were: lower levels of education (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1, p-value: 0.03); non-science major (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50, p-value: 0.04); usage of analgesics (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.07-4.86, p-value: <0.001); and mild to extreme heavy bleeding (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.01-2.67, p-value: 0.05) and pimples/acne (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54, p-value: 0.06).This practice could provide monthly, low-dose exposures to antibiotics among users.Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impacts of self-medication on student health.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland College Park, School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA. ars@umd.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Self-medication with antibiotics is an important factor contributing to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among university women in Southwest Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to female undergraduate and graduate students (n = 706) at four universities in Southwest Nigeria in 2008. The universities were selected by convenience and the study samples within each university were randomly selected cluster samples. The survey was self-administered and included questions pertaining to menstrual symptoms, analgesic and antibiotic use patterns, and demographics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression.

Results: The response rate was 95.4%. Eighty-six percent (95% CI: 83-88%) of participants experienced menstrual symptoms, and 39% (95% CI: 36-43%) reported using analgesics to treat them. Overall, 24% (95% CI: 21-27%) of participants reported self-medicated use of antibiotics to treat the following menstrual symptoms: cramps, bloating, heavy bleeding, headaches, pimples/acne, moodiness, tender breasts, backache, joint and muscle pain. Factors associated with this usage were: lower levels of education (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1, p-value: 0.03); non-science major (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50, p-value: 0.04); usage of analgesics (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.07-4.86, p-value: <0.001); and mild to extreme heavy bleeding (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.01-2.67, p-value: 0.05) and pimples/acne (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54, p-value: 0.06). Ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were used to treat the most symptoms. Doctors or nurses (6%, 95% CI: 4-7%), friends (6%, 95% CI: 4-7%) and family members (7%, 95% CI: 5-8%) were most likely to recommend the use of antibiotics for menstrual symptoms, while these drugs were most often obtained from local chemists or pharmacists (10.2%, 95% CI: 8-12%).

Conclusions: This is the first formal study to report that approximately 1 out of 4 university women surveyed in Southwest Nigeria self-medicate with antibiotics to treat menstrual symptoms. This practice could provide monthly, low-dose exposures to antibiotics among users. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impacts of self-medication on student health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus