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Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

Ley SH, O'Connor DL, Retnakaran R, Hamilton JK, Sermer M, Zinman B, Hanley AJ - BMC Public Health (2010)

Bottom Line: Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones.Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study.

Methods/design: The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.

Discussion: An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

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Schedule of four assessment visits and interim telephone calls from late pregnancy to 1-year postpartum.
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Figure 2: Schedule of four assessment visits and interim telephone calls from late pregnancy to 1-year postpartum.

Mentions: Standard obstetrical practice in Canada involves universal screening for GDM in all pregnant women at 24-28 weeks gestation by a glucose challenge test (GCT), wherein plasma glucose concentration is measured 1 hour after ingestion of a 50 g glucose load [23]. If the plasma glucose concentration is ≥ 7.8 mmol/L, the patient is referred for a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in which plasma glucose values are measured while fasting and then hourly for 3 hours following ingestion of 100 g of glucose. In clinical practice, the OGTT would typically only be ordered if the GCT were abnormal, whereas, in this study, the baseline pregnancy OGTT was completed in all participating women. In addition to the baseline OGTT visit, women were asked to participate in three follow-up visits and six telephone contacts from late pregnancy to one year postpartum (Figures 2).


Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

Ley SH, O'Connor DL, Retnakaran R, Hamilton JK, Sermer M, Zinman B, Hanley AJ - BMC Public Health (2010)

Schedule of four assessment visits and interim telephone calls from late pregnancy to 1-year postpartum.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2965719&req=5

Figure 2: Schedule of four assessment visits and interim telephone calls from late pregnancy to 1-year postpartum.
Mentions: Standard obstetrical practice in Canada involves universal screening for GDM in all pregnant women at 24-28 weeks gestation by a glucose challenge test (GCT), wherein plasma glucose concentration is measured 1 hour after ingestion of a 50 g glucose load [23]. If the plasma glucose concentration is ≥ 7.8 mmol/L, the patient is referred for a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in which plasma glucose values are measured while fasting and then hourly for 3 hours following ingestion of 100 g of glucose. In clinical practice, the OGTT would typically only be ordered if the GCT were abnormal, whereas, in this study, the baseline pregnancy OGTT was completed in all participating women. In addition to the baseline OGTT visit, women were asked to participate in three follow-up visits and six telephone contacts from late pregnancy to one year postpartum (Figures 2).

Bottom Line: Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones.Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study.

Methods/design: The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.

Discussion: An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus