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Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

Ley SH, O'Connor DL, Retnakaran R, Hamilton JK, Sermer M, Zinman B, Hanley AJ - BMC Public Health (2010)

Bottom Line: Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones.Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study.

Methods/design: The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.

Discussion: An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

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Conceptual model.
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Figure 1: Conceptual model.

Mentions: Although several reports have been published on human milk leptin [15,37,44,45], limited information is available on whether milk leptin concentrations vary from women across a spectrum of metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy, ranging from normal to obese/insulin resistant to the full range of glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Previous population-based longitudinal reports on the association of milk adiponectin with offspring anthropometric measures did not provide detailed metabolic characteristics of mothers nor did they study milk composition specifically in colostrum [46,47]. One study reported that ghrelin concentration in colostrum was reduced among women who had GDM, but the difference was normalized and not observed in mature milk [20]. This study, however, was conducted in a small sample size and therefore the observation needs to be confirmed with a larger sample size. In addition, women who are obese and/or have diabetes are known to experience delayed onset of lactogenesis II [21,27]. Hence, offspring of mothers with metabolic abnormalities may be exposed to compromised early nutrition due to a lack of accessibility to human milk and/or to an altered composition of human milk (Figure 1).


Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

Ley SH, O'Connor DL, Retnakaran R, Hamilton JK, Sermer M, Zinman B, Hanley AJ - BMC Public Health (2010)

Conceptual model.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2965719&req=5

Figure 1: Conceptual model.
Mentions: Although several reports have been published on human milk leptin [15,37,44,45], limited information is available on whether milk leptin concentrations vary from women across a spectrum of metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy, ranging from normal to obese/insulin resistant to the full range of glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Previous population-based longitudinal reports on the association of milk adiponectin with offspring anthropometric measures did not provide detailed metabolic characteristics of mothers nor did they study milk composition specifically in colostrum [46,47]. One study reported that ghrelin concentration in colostrum was reduced among women who had GDM, but the difference was normalized and not observed in mature milk [20]. This study, however, was conducted in a small sample size and therefore the observation needs to be confirmed with a larger sample size. In addition, women who are obese and/or have diabetes are known to experience delayed onset of lactogenesis II [21,27]. Hence, offspring of mothers with metabolic abnormalities may be exposed to compromised early nutrition due to a lack of accessibility to human milk and/or to an altered composition of human milk (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones.Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study.

Methods/design: The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors.

Discussion: An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus