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Gadd45β expression in chondrosarcoma: a pilot study for diagnostic and biological implications in histological grading.

Zenmyo M, Tanimoto A, Sakakima H, Yokouchi M, Nagano S, Yamamoto T, Ishido Y, Komiya S, Ijiri K - Diagn Pathol (2010)

Bottom Line: Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45β (GADD45β) is an essential molecule for chondrocytes during terminal differentiation.Quantitative analysis was performed to compare the number of GADD45β positive cells and pathological grading.Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, especially the distinction between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma or low-grade chondrosarcoma and high-grade chondrosarcoma, is pathologically difficult, differential diagnosis is very important because the treatment strategies for these diseases are completely different. The grading system is crucial in predicting biologic behavior and prognosis, however, exact pathological grading is difficult using only routine examinations because the criteria of the grading system are not necessarily definitive. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45β (GADD45β) is an essential molecule for chondrocytes during terminal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of GADD45β in enchondroma, and chondrosarcoma of histological grades I, II, and III, to clarify the diagnostic significance of GADD45β in pathological grading of chondrosarcoma.

Methods: Twenty samples (enchondroma = 6, chondrosarcoma grade I = 7, grade II = 6, grade III = 1) were used for immunohistochemical analysis to investigate the expression of GADD45β. Quantitative analysis was performed to compare the number of GADD45β positive cells and pathological grading.

Results: Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. On the other hand, the expression of GADD45β decreased significantly according to the histological grade of chondrosarcoma (grade I: 45%; grade II: 13.8%; and grade III: 3.8%).

Conclusions: The association of GADD45β expression and pathological grading of chondrosarcoma in the present study suggests that the immunohistochemical study of GADD45β may be a specific diagnostic parameter for chondrosarcoma cell differentiation.

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Immunohistochemical staining for GADD45β A) Enchondroma, B) Grade I Chondrosarcoma, C) Grade II Chondrosarcoma, D) Grade III Chondrosarcoma. Chondrocytes which have plump nuclei and are surrounded by cartilage matrix, are positive for GADD45β. In contrast, most of the atypical and immature cells in grade II or III chondrosarcoma are negative.Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. In chondrosarcomas, the rate of GADD45β positive cells was inversely proportional to its grade. There were statistically significant differences among three groups except grade III chondrosarcoma. (*: P < 0.01)
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Figure 2: Immunohistochemical staining for GADD45β A) Enchondroma, B) Grade I Chondrosarcoma, C) Grade II Chondrosarcoma, D) Grade III Chondrosarcoma. Chondrocytes which have plump nuclei and are surrounded by cartilage matrix, are positive for GADD45β. In contrast, most of the atypical and immature cells in grade II or III chondrosarcoma are negative.Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. In chondrosarcomas, the rate of GADD45β positive cells was inversely proportional to its grade. There were statistically significant differences among three groups except grade III chondrosarcoma. (*: P < 0.01)

Mentions: In grade II chondrosarcomas, comparatively mature cells, which had plump nuclei and were surrounded by cartilage matrix, were positive for GADD45β. In contrast, most of the atypical spindle cells, which had enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei and myxomatous matrix, were negative. (Fig. 2C) Although we had only 1 case of grade III chondrosarcoma, only 3.8% of the cells were positive for GADD45β.


Gadd45β expression in chondrosarcoma: a pilot study for diagnostic and biological implications in histological grading.

Zenmyo M, Tanimoto A, Sakakima H, Yokouchi M, Nagano S, Yamamoto T, Ishido Y, Komiya S, Ijiri K - Diagn Pathol (2010)

Immunohistochemical staining for GADD45β A) Enchondroma, B) Grade I Chondrosarcoma, C) Grade II Chondrosarcoma, D) Grade III Chondrosarcoma. Chondrocytes which have plump nuclei and are surrounded by cartilage matrix, are positive for GADD45β. In contrast, most of the atypical and immature cells in grade II or III chondrosarcoma are negative.Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. In chondrosarcomas, the rate of GADD45β positive cells was inversely proportional to its grade. There were statistically significant differences among three groups except grade III chondrosarcoma. (*: P < 0.01)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2965710&req=5

Figure 2: Immunohistochemical staining for GADD45β A) Enchondroma, B) Grade I Chondrosarcoma, C) Grade II Chondrosarcoma, D) Grade III Chondrosarcoma. Chondrocytes which have plump nuclei and are surrounded by cartilage matrix, are positive for GADD45β. In contrast, most of the atypical and immature cells in grade II or III chondrosarcoma are negative.Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. In chondrosarcomas, the rate of GADD45β positive cells was inversely proportional to its grade. There were statistically significant differences among three groups except grade III chondrosarcoma. (*: P < 0.01)
Mentions: In grade II chondrosarcomas, comparatively mature cells, which had plump nuclei and were surrounded by cartilage matrix, were positive for GADD45β. In contrast, most of the atypical spindle cells, which had enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei and myxomatous matrix, were negative. (Fig. 2C) Although we had only 1 case of grade III chondrosarcoma, only 3.8% of the cells were positive for GADD45β.

Bottom Line: Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45β (GADD45β) is an essential molecule for chondrocytes during terminal differentiation.Quantitative analysis was performed to compare the number of GADD45β positive cells and pathological grading.Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, especially the distinction between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma or low-grade chondrosarcoma and high-grade chondrosarcoma, is pathologically difficult, differential diagnosis is very important because the treatment strategies for these diseases are completely different. The grading system is crucial in predicting biologic behavior and prognosis, however, exact pathological grading is difficult using only routine examinations because the criteria of the grading system are not necessarily definitive. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45β (GADD45β) is an essential molecule for chondrocytes during terminal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of GADD45β in enchondroma, and chondrosarcoma of histological grades I, II, and III, to clarify the diagnostic significance of GADD45β in pathological grading of chondrosarcoma.

Methods: Twenty samples (enchondroma = 6, chondrosarcoma grade I = 7, grade II = 6, grade III = 1) were used for immunohistochemical analysis to investigate the expression of GADD45β. Quantitative analysis was performed to compare the number of GADD45β positive cells and pathological grading.

Results: Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. On the other hand, the expression of GADD45β decreased significantly according to the histological grade of chondrosarcoma (grade I: 45%; grade II: 13.8%; and grade III: 3.8%).

Conclusions: The association of GADD45β expression and pathological grading of chondrosarcoma in the present study suggests that the immunohistochemical study of GADD45β may be a specific diagnostic parameter for chondrosarcoma cell differentiation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus