Limits...
Types of neural guides and using nanotechnology for peripheral nerve reconstruction.

Biazar E, Khorasani MT, Montazeri N, Pourshamsian K, Daliri M, Rezaei M, Jabarvand M, Khoshzaban A, Heidari S, Jafarpour M, Roviemiab Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Bottom Line: Utilization of absorbable and nonabsorbable synthetic and natural polymers with unique characteristics can be an appropriate solution to repair damaged nerve tissues.Better cell adhesion and migration, more guiding of axons, and structural features, such as porosity, provide a clearer role for nanofibers in the restoration of neural tissues.In this paper, basic concepts of peripheral nerve injury, types of artificial and natural guides, and methods to improve the performance of tubes, such as orientation, nanotechnology applications for nerve reconstruction, fibers and nanofibers, electrospinning methods, and their application in peripheral nerve reconstruction are reviewed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon Branch, Iran. e.biazar@tonekaboniau.ac.ir

ABSTRACT
Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Different methods, such as conventional allograft procedures and use of biologic tubes present problems when used for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Designed scaffolds comprised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the reconstruction of damaged tissues. Utilization of absorbable and nonabsorbable synthetic and natural polymers with unique characteristics can be an appropriate solution to repair damaged nerve tissues. Polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds with properties similar to neural structures can be more effective in the reconstruction process. Better cell adhesion and migration, more guiding of axons, and structural features, such as porosity, provide a clearer role for nanofibers in the restoration of neural tissues. In this paper, basic concepts of peripheral nerve injury, types of artificial and natural guides, and methods to improve the performance of tubes, such as orientation, nanotechnology applications for nerve reconstruction, fibers and nanofibers, electrospinning methods, and their application in peripheral nerve reconstruction are reviewed.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Longitudinal sections of nerve regenerated within the implanted guide channel. In the conduit, the regenerated nerve bridged the 10 mm gap, reconnecting the two sciatic nerve stumps. (A) Four months after surgery, hematoxilyn and eosin staining shows the presence of regenerated tissue filling the conduit lumen; decreased lumen diameter is observable at middle length of the guidance channel. Regenerated tissue positive to Bielschowsky staining (B) and to anti-β-tubulin antibody (C) shows nervous projections oriented along the major axis of the prosthesis bridging the 10 mm gap between the severed sciatic nerve stumps (image sequence collected at 4 × magnification).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2963930&req=5

f13-ijn-5-839: Longitudinal sections of nerve regenerated within the implanted guide channel. In the conduit, the regenerated nerve bridged the 10 mm gap, reconnecting the two sciatic nerve stumps. (A) Four months after surgery, hematoxilyn and eosin staining shows the presence of regenerated tissue filling the conduit lumen; decreased lumen diameter is observable at middle length of the guidance channel. Regenerated tissue positive to Bielschowsky staining (B) and to anti-β-tubulin antibody (C) shows nervous projections oriented along the major axis of the prosthesis bridging the 10 mm gap between the severed sciatic nerve stumps (image sequence collected at 4 × magnification).

Mentions: The most widespread synthetic polymers in neural tissue engineering are poly(a-hydroxy esters) which include PGA, PLA, and a copolymer of the two PLGA. These synthetic polymers are frequently used due to their advantageous biodegradable properties and their ease of electrospinning.74,75 Another member, PCL, is also used when a slower rate of degradation is desired, especially in some drug delivery applications. This method has been used to design neural tubes of different materials like natural polymers of chitosan78 or synthetic polymers like PLGA.79,80 Various factors affect the size of these fibers. These nanofibers increase neural cell adhesion. Our results showed that composite nanofibers had a positive effect on nerve reconstruction. Figures 12 and 13 show SEM images of the electrospun PLGA/PCL nerve guide conduit and longitudinal sections of nerve regenerated within the implanted guide channel. Previous research has also shown that composite nanofibers have a positive effect on nerve resconstruction.77


Types of neural guides and using nanotechnology for peripheral nerve reconstruction.

Biazar E, Khorasani MT, Montazeri N, Pourshamsian K, Daliri M, Rezaei M, Jabarvand M, Khoshzaban A, Heidari S, Jafarpour M, Roviemiab Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Longitudinal sections of nerve regenerated within the implanted guide channel. In the conduit, the regenerated nerve bridged the 10 mm gap, reconnecting the two sciatic nerve stumps. (A) Four months after surgery, hematoxilyn and eosin staining shows the presence of regenerated tissue filling the conduit lumen; decreased lumen diameter is observable at middle length of the guidance channel. Regenerated tissue positive to Bielschowsky staining (B) and to anti-β-tubulin antibody (C) shows nervous projections oriented along the major axis of the prosthesis bridging the 10 mm gap between the severed sciatic nerve stumps (image sequence collected at 4 × magnification).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2963930&req=5

f13-ijn-5-839: Longitudinal sections of nerve regenerated within the implanted guide channel. In the conduit, the regenerated nerve bridged the 10 mm gap, reconnecting the two sciatic nerve stumps. (A) Four months after surgery, hematoxilyn and eosin staining shows the presence of regenerated tissue filling the conduit lumen; decreased lumen diameter is observable at middle length of the guidance channel. Regenerated tissue positive to Bielschowsky staining (B) and to anti-β-tubulin antibody (C) shows nervous projections oriented along the major axis of the prosthesis bridging the 10 mm gap between the severed sciatic nerve stumps (image sequence collected at 4 × magnification).
Mentions: The most widespread synthetic polymers in neural tissue engineering are poly(a-hydroxy esters) which include PGA, PLA, and a copolymer of the two PLGA. These synthetic polymers are frequently used due to their advantageous biodegradable properties and their ease of electrospinning.74,75 Another member, PCL, is also used when a slower rate of degradation is desired, especially in some drug delivery applications. This method has been used to design neural tubes of different materials like natural polymers of chitosan78 or synthetic polymers like PLGA.79,80 Various factors affect the size of these fibers. These nanofibers increase neural cell adhesion. Our results showed that composite nanofibers had a positive effect on nerve reconstruction. Figures 12 and 13 show SEM images of the electrospun PLGA/PCL nerve guide conduit and longitudinal sections of nerve regenerated within the implanted guide channel. Previous research has also shown that composite nanofibers have a positive effect on nerve resconstruction.77

Bottom Line: Utilization of absorbable and nonabsorbable synthetic and natural polymers with unique characteristics can be an appropriate solution to repair damaged nerve tissues.Better cell adhesion and migration, more guiding of axons, and structural features, such as porosity, provide a clearer role for nanofibers in the restoration of neural tissues.In this paper, basic concepts of peripheral nerve injury, types of artificial and natural guides, and methods to improve the performance of tubes, such as orientation, nanotechnology applications for nerve reconstruction, fibers and nanofibers, electrospinning methods, and their application in peripheral nerve reconstruction are reviewed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon Branch, Iran. e.biazar@tonekaboniau.ac.ir

ABSTRACT
Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Different methods, such as conventional allograft procedures and use of biologic tubes present problems when used for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Designed scaffolds comprised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the reconstruction of damaged tissues. Utilization of absorbable and nonabsorbable synthetic and natural polymers with unique characteristics can be an appropriate solution to repair damaged nerve tissues. Polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds with properties similar to neural structures can be more effective in the reconstruction process. Better cell adhesion and migration, more guiding of axons, and structural features, such as porosity, provide a clearer role for nanofibers in the restoration of neural tissues. In this paper, basic concepts of peripheral nerve injury, types of artificial and natural guides, and methods to improve the performance of tubes, such as orientation, nanotechnology applications for nerve reconstruction, fibers and nanofibers, electrospinning methods, and their application in peripheral nerve reconstruction are reviewed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus