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Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States.

Michimi A, Wimberly MC - Int J Health Geogr (2010)

Bottom Line: Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities.Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas.Future research should attempt to more precisely quantify the availability and affordability of foods in nonmetropolitan areas and consider alternative sources of healthy foods besides supermarkets.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Wecota Hall Box 506B, 1021 Medary Avenue, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. akihiko.michimi@sdstate.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas.

Results: Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories.

Conclusions: Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single measure of supermarket accessibility. Future research should attempt to more precisely quantify the availability and affordability of foods in nonmetropolitan areas and consider alternative sources of healthy foods besides supermarkets.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Computing population-weighted mean distance to supermarket. (a) Population-weighted ZCTA centroids containing different sizes of supermarkets in South Dakota; (b) Zonal statistics showing mean distance (km) from ZCTA centroids containing large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota; (c) Census 2000 block group population for South Dakota and population-weighted ZCTA centroids containing large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota; and (d) Population-weighted mean distance (km) to large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota by county
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Figure 1: Computing population-weighted mean distance to supermarket. (a) Population-weighted ZCTA centroids containing different sizes of supermarkets in South Dakota; (b) Zonal statistics showing mean distance (km) from ZCTA centroids containing large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota; (c) Census 2000 block group population for South Dakota and population-weighted ZCTA centroids containing large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota; and (d) Population-weighted mean distance (km) to large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota by county

Mentions: Because BRFSS data were not available at finer spatial resolutions than counties, supermarket distances were summarized at the county level. We computed the population-weighted mean distance to supermarket for each county. We obtained population-weighted ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) centroids for the entire United States from the Missouri Census Data Center website at http://mcdc.missouri.edu/pub/data/georef/ and joined the NAICS ZIP code data at the national level with three supermarket size categories to the ZCTA centroids. Here, we demonstrate how population-weighted mean distance to supermarket is calculated using South Dakota as an example. The ZCTA centroids that contained different sizes of supermarkets in South Dakota are shown in Figure 1(a). Large cities, such as Sioux Falls and Rapid City, had all three sizes of supermarkets, while smaller cities often contained only small- to medium-sized supermarkets, particularly in sparsely populated areas of the western central South Dakota. Some ZCTA centroids in remote communities, however, contained no supermarkets of any size.


Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States.

Michimi A, Wimberly MC - Int J Health Geogr (2010)

Computing population-weighted mean distance to supermarket. (a) Population-weighted ZCTA centroids containing different sizes of supermarkets in South Dakota; (b) Zonal statistics showing mean distance (km) from ZCTA centroids containing large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota; (c) Census 2000 block group population for South Dakota and population-weighted ZCTA centroids containing large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota; and (d) Population-weighted mean distance (km) to large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota by county
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2959055&req=5

Figure 1: Computing population-weighted mean distance to supermarket. (a) Population-weighted ZCTA centroids containing different sizes of supermarkets in South Dakota; (b) Zonal statistics showing mean distance (km) from ZCTA centroids containing large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota; (c) Census 2000 block group population for South Dakota and population-weighted ZCTA centroids containing large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota; and (d) Population-weighted mean distance (km) to large or medium supermarkets in South Dakota by county
Mentions: Because BRFSS data were not available at finer spatial resolutions than counties, supermarket distances were summarized at the county level. We computed the population-weighted mean distance to supermarket for each county. We obtained population-weighted ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) centroids for the entire United States from the Missouri Census Data Center website at http://mcdc.missouri.edu/pub/data/georef/ and joined the NAICS ZIP code data at the national level with three supermarket size categories to the ZCTA centroids. Here, we demonstrate how population-weighted mean distance to supermarket is calculated using South Dakota as an example. The ZCTA centroids that contained different sizes of supermarkets in South Dakota are shown in Figure 1(a). Large cities, such as Sioux Falls and Rapid City, had all three sizes of supermarkets, while smaller cities often contained only small- to medium-sized supermarkets, particularly in sparsely populated areas of the western central South Dakota. Some ZCTA centroids in remote communities, however, contained no supermarkets of any size.

Bottom Line: Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities.Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas.Future research should attempt to more precisely quantify the availability and affordability of foods in nonmetropolitan areas and consider alternative sources of healthy foods besides supermarkets.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Wecota Hall Box 506B, 1021 Medary Avenue, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. akihiko.michimi@sdstate.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas.

Results: Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories.

Conclusions: Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single measure of supermarket accessibility. Future research should attempt to more precisely quantify the availability and affordability of foods in nonmetropolitan areas and consider alternative sources of healthy foods besides supermarkets.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus