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Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera.

Hasle G, Bjune GA, Christensson D, Røed KH, Whist AC, Leinaas HP - Acta Vet. Scand. (2010)

Bottom Line: Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens.The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies.The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway. hasle@reiseklinikken.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens.

Methods: We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT). Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI.

Results: The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples.

Conclusions: Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area.

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Fraction of cows positive for Babesia divergens IFAT IgG antibodies at a titre of 1:40 (+++) or higher in 24 different farms along the southern Norwegian coast, arranged form west to east. Error bars: 95% confidence intervals.
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Figure 2: Fraction of cows positive for Babesia divergens IFAT IgG antibodies at a titre of 1:40 (+++) or higher in 24 different farms along the southern Norwegian coast, arranged form west to east. Error bars: 95% confidence intervals.

Mentions: Of the 306 sera that we tested, 84 (27%) had positive IFAT results. A high percentage of these positive results were found in the western and eastern ranges of the study area, and a much lower rate of positive test results was found in the middle range of the study area (Table 1; Figure 2). Farm 23 had 3 positive test results among the 16 cows that had been imported from inland localities one year before the study, indicating that there is a substantial risk of babesiosis in their present locality. The presence of B. divergens was confirmed by IFAT in a total of 17 of the 24 farms we tested. Farmers had observed redwater in only ten of the farms where B. divergens was detected, and only four of these cases of redwater had been recorded by the NDHRS (Figure 3). All of the cows on one of the farms in the study were B. divergens-antibody positive, though the owner had never seen any cases of redwater. We detected B. divergens antibodies in 17 of the 25 cows that we tested on Jomfruland, where Radzijevskaja [27] found no infected ticks.


Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera.

Hasle G, Bjune GA, Christensson D, Røed KH, Whist AC, Leinaas HP - Acta Vet. Scand. (2010)

Fraction of cows positive for Babesia divergens IFAT IgG antibodies at a titre of 1:40 (+++) or higher in 24 different farms along the southern Norwegian coast, arranged form west to east. Error bars: 95% confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2959048&req=5

Figure 2: Fraction of cows positive for Babesia divergens IFAT IgG antibodies at a titre of 1:40 (+++) or higher in 24 different farms along the southern Norwegian coast, arranged form west to east. Error bars: 95% confidence intervals.
Mentions: Of the 306 sera that we tested, 84 (27%) had positive IFAT results. A high percentage of these positive results were found in the western and eastern ranges of the study area, and a much lower rate of positive test results was found in the middle range of the study area (Table 1; Figure 2). Farm 23 had 3 positive test results among the 16 cows that had been imported from inland localities one year before the study, indicating that there is a substantial risk of babesiosis in their present locality. The presence of B. divergens was confirmed by IFAT in a total of 17 of the 24 farms we tested. Farmers had observed redwater in only ten of the farms where B. divergens was detected, and only four of these cases of redwater had been recorded by the NDHRS (Figure 3). All of the cows on one of the farms in the study were B. divergens-antibody positive, though the owner had never seen any cases of redwater. We detected B. divergens antibodies in 17 of the 25 cows that we tested on Jomfruland, where Radzijevskaja [27] found no infected ticks.

Bottom Line: Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens.The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies.The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway. hasle@reiseklinikken.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens.

Methods: We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT). Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI.

Results: The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples.

Conclusions: Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus