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Granger causality mapping during joint actions reveals evidence for forward models that could overcome sensory-motor delays.

Kokal I, Keysers C - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: To test whether the pMNS might contribute indirectly to the integration process by sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network), here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM) [5].We found that the left BA44 sent more information than it received to both the integration network (left thalamus, right middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum) and more posterior nodes of the pMNS (BA2).Thus, during joint actions, two anatomically separate networks therefore seem effectively connected and the information flow is predominantly from anterior to posterior areas of the brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, BCN Neuroimaging Centre, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Studies investigating joint actions have suggested a central role for the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) because of the close link between perception and action provided by these brain regions [1], [2], [3]. In contrast, our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment demonstrated that the BOLD response of the pMNS does not suggest that it directly integrates observed and executed actions during joint actions [4]. To test whether the pMNS might contribute indirectly to the integration process by sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network), here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM) [5]. We explored the directional information flow between the anterior sites of the pMNS and previously identified integrative brain regions. We found that the left BA44 sent more information than it received to both the integration network (left thalamus, right middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum) and more posterior nodes of the pMNS (BA2). Thus, during joint actions, two anatomically separate networks therefore seem effectively connected and the information flow is predominantly from anterior to posterior areas of the brain. These findings suggest that the pMNS is involved indirectly in joint actions by transforming observed and executed actions into a common code and is part of a generative model that could predict the future somatosensory and visual consequences of observed and executed actions in order to overcome otherwise inevitable neural delays.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The directed influence of the (A) source region BA44 (blue) and (B) source region BA6 (blue) on the target regions (purple) in the joint action condition.The yellow (A) and orange (B) lines represent the information flow from source regions to the target regions.
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pone-0013507-g002: The directed influence of the (A) source region BA44 (blue) and (B) source region BA6 (blue) on the target regions (purple) in the joint action condition.The yellow (A) and orange (B) lines represent the information flow from source regions to the target regions.

Mentions: The differential Granger Causality (dGC) was significantly above zero from at least some left BA44 voxels (part of the pMNS) to bilateral BA2 voxels in the somatosensory cortex (also within the pMNS) and to voxels of the right MOG, left thalamus, left cerebellar vermis and right cerebellum (within the integration network) when analyses were confined to the joint action blocks (Fig. 2A & Table 1). This suggests that some voxels in the left BA44 sent significantly more information to some voxels of both the pMNS and the integration network than it received from voxels in these regions during joint actions. In addition, the dGC was significantly above zero from at least some voxels in left BA6 (part of the pMNS) to voxels of the left cerebellar vermis (part of the integration network) when analyses were confined to the joint action blocks (Fig. 2B & Table 2). This suggests that some voxels in the left BA6 influenced the left cerebellar vermis part of the integration network more than the other way around during joint actions.


Granger causality mapping during joint actions reveals evidence for forward models that could overcome sensory-motor delays.

Kokal I, Keysers C - PLoS ONE (2010)

The directed influence of the (A) source region BA44 (blue) and (B) source region BA6 (blue) on the target regions (purple) in the joint action condition.The yellow (A) and orange (B) lines represent the information flow from source regions to the target regions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2958830&req=5

pone-0013507-g002: The directed influence of the (A) source region BA44 (blue) and (B) source region BA6 (blue) on the target regions (purple) in the joint action condition.The yellow (A) and orange (B) lines represent the information flow from source regions to the target regions.
Mentions: The differential Granger Causality (dGC) was significantly above zero from at least some left BA44 voxels (part of the pMNS) to bilateral BA2 voxels in the somatosensory cortex (also within the pMNS) and to voxels of the right MOG, left thalamus, left cerebellar vermis and right cerebellum (within the integration network) when analyses were confined to the joint action blocks (Fig. 2A & Table 1). This suggests that some voxels in the left BA44 sent significantly more information to some voxels of both the pMNS and the integration network than it received from voxels in these regions during joint actions. In addition, the dGC was significantly above zero from at least some voxels in left BA6 (part of the pMNS) to voxels of the left cerebellar vermis (part of the integration network) when analyses were confined to the joint action blocks (Fig. 2B & Table 2). This suggests that some voxels in the left BA6 influenced the left cerebellar vermis part of the integration network more than the other way around during joint actions.

Bottom Line: To test whether the pMNS might contribute indirectly to the integration process by sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network), here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM) [5].We found that the left BA44 sent more information than it received to both the integration network (left thalamus, right middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum) and more posterior nodes of the pMNS (BA2).Thus, during joint actions, two anatomically separate networks therefore seem effectively connected and the information flow is predominantly from anterior to posterior areas of the brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, BCN Neuroimaging Centre, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Studies investigating joint actions have suggested a central role for the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) because of the close link between perception and action provided by these brain regions [1], [2], [3]. In contrast, our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment demonstrated that the BOLD response of the pMNS does not suggest that it directly integrates observed and executed actions during joint actions [4]. To test whether the pMNS might contribute indirectly to the integration process by sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network), here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM) [5]. We explored the directional information flow between the anterior sites of the pMNS and previously identified integrative brain regions. We found that the left BA44 sent more information than it received to both the integration network (left thalamus, right middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum) and more posterior nodes of the pMNS (BA2). Thus, during joint actions, two anatomically separate networks therefore seem effectively connected and the information flow is predominantly from anterior to posterior areas of the brain. These findings suggest that the pMNS is involved indirectly in joint actions by transforming observed and executed actions into a common code and is part of a generative model that could predict the future somatosensory and visual consequences of observed and executed actions in order to overcome otherwise inevitable neural delays.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus