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Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats.

Maurer AD, Eller LK, Hallam MC, Taylor K, Reimer RA - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2010)

Bottom Line: Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT.Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT.HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, T2N 4Z6, Canada. reimer@ucalgary.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood.

Methods: At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C), high prebiotic fiber (HF) or high protein (HP) diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS) diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR.

Results: Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF.

Conclusion: These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Plasma GLP-1, glucagon and leptin in rats during an oral glucose tolerance test following a high fat/sucrose diet challenge. Results are presented as mean ± SE, n = 8-9 per group. No sex effect was detected for GLP-1, glucagon and leptin, therefore male and female data were combined. Panel A provides the serial values of plasma GLP-1 during the OGTT. In Panel A, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF and HP at the indicated time points. Panel B provides the serial values of plasma glucagon. Panel C provides the serial values of leptin. In Panel C, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP and HF at 15 minutes.
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Figure 4: Plasma GLP-1, glucagon and leptin in rats during an oral glucose tolerance test following a high fat/sucrose diet challenge. Results are presented as mean ± SE, n = 8-9 per group. No sex effect was detected for GLP-1, glucagon and leptin, therefore male and female data were combined. Panel A provides the serial values of plasma GLP-1 during the OGTT. In Panel A, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF and HP at the indicated time points. Panel B provides the serial values of plasma glucagon. Panel C provides the serial values of leptin. In Panel C, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP and HF at 15 minutes.

Mentions: There was a significant diet effect for glucose wherein concentrations were higher for HP rats compared to HF at time 30, 60, and 90 min (p < 0.05; Figure 3A). There were no significant differences in insulin between the groups (Figure 3B). A significant sex effect was found for amylin therefore male and female data were analysed separately. There was a significant diet effect for amylin in female rats (p = 0.014; Figure 3C) but not male rats (Figure 3D). HF was greater than C in females at time 0 (p = 0.01), 15 (p = 0.02), and 60 minutes (p = 0.05). GLP-1 was significantly higher in HF rats than HP throughout the entire OGTT (p < 0.05; Figure 4A). Glucagon release was suppressed following the oral glucose load but did not differ between groups (Figure 4B). There were significant diet effects for leptin wherein HP was greater than HF and C at time 0 and time 60 (p < 0.05), and greater than HF at time 15 (p < 0.05; Figure 4C).


Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats.

Maurer AD, Eller LK, Hallam MC, Taylor K, Reimer RA - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2010)

Plasma GLP-1, glucagon and leptin in rats during an oral glucose tolerance test following a high fat/sucrose diet challenge. Results are presented as mean ± SE, n = 8-9 per group. No sex effect was detected for GLP-1, glucagon and leptin, therefore male and female data were combined. Panel A provides the serial values of plasma GLP-1 during the OGTT. In Panel A, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF and HP at the indicated time points. Panel B provides the serial values of plasma glucagon. Panel C provides the serial values of leptin. In Panel C, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP and HF at 15 minutes.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2958159&req=5

Figure 4: Plasma GLP-1, glucagon and leptin in rats during an oral glucose tolerance test following a high fat/sucrose diet challenge. Results are presented as mean ± SE, n = 8-9 per group. No sex effect was detected for GLP-1, glucagon and leptin, therefore male and female data were combined. Panel A provides the serial values of plasma GLP-1 during the OGTT. In Panel A, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF and HP at the indicated time points. Panel B provides the serial values of plasma glucagon. Panel C provides the serial values of leptin. In Panel C, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP and HF at 15 minutes.
Mentions: There was a significant diet effect for glucose wherein concentrations were higher for HP rats compared to HF at time 30, 60, and 90 min (p < 0.05; Figure 3A). There were no significant differences in insulin between the groups (Figure 3B). A significant sex effect was found for amylin therefore male and female data were analysed separately. There was a significant diet effect for amylin in female rats (p = 0.014; Figure 3C) but not male rats (Figure 3D). HF was greater than C in females at time 0 (p = 0.01), 15 (p = 0.02), and 60 minutes (p = 0.05). GLP-1 was significantly higher in HF rats than HP throughout the entire OGTT (p < 0.05; Figure 4A). Glucagon release was suppressed following the oral glucose load but did not differ between groups (Figure 4B). There were significant diet effects for leptin wherein HP was greater than HF and C at time 0 and time 60 (p < 0.05), and greater than HF at time 15 (p < 0.05; Figure 4C).

Bottom Line: Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT.Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT.HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, T2N 4Z6, Canada. reimer@ucalgary.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood.

Methods: At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C), high prebiotic fiber (HF) or high protein (HP) diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS) diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR.

Results: Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF.

Conclusion: These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus