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Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats.

Maurer AD, Eller LK, Hallam MC, Taylor K, Reimer RA - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2010)

Bottom Line: Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT.Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT.HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, T2N 4Z6, Canada. reimer@ucalgary.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood.

Methods: At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C), high prebiotic fiber (HF) or high protein (HP) diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS) diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR.

Results: Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF.

Conclusion: These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Energy intake of male and female rats that consumed a C, HF or HP diet from weaning until 14 wk of age and were then switched to a HFHS diet for 6 wk. Results are presented as mean ± SE, n = 5 per group. Panel A provides the energy intake in male rats measured daily for a week every two weeks throughout the study. Rats were switched from their weaning diet (C, HF or HP) to HFHS at 14 wk of age and consumed it until study completion at 20 wk of age. Panel B provides the energy intake in female rats measured for daily for a week every two weeks throughout the study. In Panel A, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus HP and C. The § represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF. In Panel B, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus HP. The § represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus C.
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Figure 2: Energy intake of male and female rats that consumed a C, HF or HP diet from weaning until 14 wk of age and were then switched to a HFHS diet for 6 wk. Results are presented as mean ± SE, n = 5 per group. Panel A provides the energy intake in male rats measured daily for a week every two weeks throughout the study. Rats were switched from their weaning diet (C, HF or HP) to HFHS at 14 wk of age and consumed it until study completion at 20 wk of age. Panel B provides the energy intake in female rats measured for daily for a week every two weeks throughout the study. In Panel A, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus HP and C. The § represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF. In Panel B, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus HP. The § represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus C.

Mentions: Body weight was similar across all groups of male rats until 12 wk of age when the magnitude of weight gain slowed significantly in the HF fed rats compared to HP and C (p < 0.05, Figure 1A). When the rats were switched to a HFHS diet (Figure 1B), HF rats had significantly lower body weight than C and HP at 15 and 16 wk of age (p < 0.05). From 17 wk to the end of the study, HP were significantly heavier than HF rats (p < 0.05). In females, the HF diet was associated with a lower body weight at early time points than in the males (Figure 1C). At 4 wk of age, HF rats had lower body weight than C and HP rats while in weeks 5 through 8, HF was lower than HP (p < 0.05). The magnitude of difference in weight gain was smaller in females compared to males when switched to the HFHS diet (Figure 1D). At 19 and 20 wk of age, the HP female rats were significantly heavier than HF rats (p < 0.05). Final body weight in male and female rats raised on the HP was higher than the HF group (Table 2). Body fat was higher in HP male (p = 0.001) and female (p = 0.005) rats compared to HF and higher than C (p = 0.001) in males. Percent lean mass was significantly lower in HP compared to C and HF in males (p = 0.001). In females, HP was lower than HF (p = 0.003) but not C. Weight gain in male rats while they consumed the C, HF, or HP diet was significantly lower in HF versus C and HP rats (419 ± 10 g; 474 ± 10 g; 496 ± 13 g respectively in HF, C, and HP; p = 0.001). When switched to the HFHS diet for 6 wk, weight gain remained lower in HF versus HP rats (45 ± 6 g; 57 ± 6 g; 64 ± 4 g respectively in HF, C, and HP; p = 0.07). In females, the lower weight gain that occurred during wk 3 to wk 14 and during HFHS feeding was not significantly different from C and HP. Energy intake was higher in HP males compared to HF and C at 12 wk of age (p = 0.02, Figure 2A). HF rats had lower energy intake at 14 and 16 wk compared to C and HP and lower than HP at wk 20 (p < 0.05). In females, energy intake was lower in HF rats at wk 12 compared to C (p = 0.05, Figure 2B) and lower than HP rats at 14 and 20 wk (p < 0.05). HP rats had high energy intake at 16 and 18 wk compared to C and HF rats (p = 0.04).


Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats.

Maurer AD, Eller LK, Hallam MC, Taylor K, Reimer RA - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2010)

Energy intake of male and female rats that consumed a C, HF or HP diet from weaning until 14 wk of age and were then switched to a HFHS diet for 6 wk. Results are presented as mean ± SE, n = 5 per group. Panel A provides the energy intake in male rats measured daily for a week every two weeks throughout the study. Rats were switched from their weaning diet (C, HF or HP) to HFHS at 14 wk of age and consumed it until study completion at 20 wk of age. Panel B provides the energy intake in female rats measured for daily for a week every two weeks throughout the study. In Panel A, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus HP and C. The § represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF. In Panel B, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus HP. The § represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus C.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2958159&req=5

Figure 2: Energy intake of male and female rats that consumed a C, HF or HP diet from weaning until 14 wk of age and were then switched to a HFHS diet for 6 wk. Results are presented as mean ± SE, n = 5 per group. Panel A provides the energy intake in male rats measured daily for a week every two weeks throughout the study. Rats were switched from their weaning diet (C, HF or HP) to HFHS at 14 wk of age and consumed it until study completion at 20 wk of age. Panel B provides the energy intake in female rats measured for daily for a week every two weeks throughout the study. In Panel A, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus HP and C. The § represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF. In Panel B, the * represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HP versus HF and C. The † represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus HP. The § represents a difference (p < 0.05) between HF versus C.
Mentions: Body weight was similar across all groups of male rats until 12 wk of age when the magnitude of weight gain slowed significantly in the HF fed rats compared to HP and C (p < 0.05, Figure 1A). When the rats were switched to a HFHS diet (Figure 1B), HF rats had significantly lower body weight than C and HP at 15 and 16 wk of age (p < 0.05). From 17 wk to the end of the study, HP were significantly heavier than HF rats (p < 0.05). In females, the HF diet was associated with a lower body weight at early time points than in the males (Figure 1C). At 4 wk of age, HF rats had lower body weight than C and HP rats while in weeks 5 through 8, HF was lower than HP (p < 0.05). The magnitude of difference in weight gain was smaller in females compared to males when switched to the HFHS diet (Figure 1D). At 19 and 20 wk of age, the HP female rats were significantly heavier than HF rats (p < 0.05). Final body weight in male and female rats raised on the HP was higher than the HF group (Table 2). Body fat was higher in HP male (p = 0.001) and female (p = 0.005) rats compared to HF and higher than C (p = 0.001) in males. Percent lean mass was significantly lower in HP compared to C and HF in males (p = 0.001). In females, HP was lower than HF (p = 0.003) but not C. Weight gain in male rats while they consumed the C, HF, or HP diet was significantly lower in HF versus C and HP rats (419 ± 10 g; 474 ± 10 g; 496 ± 13 g respectively in HF, C, and HP; p = 0.001). When switched to the HFHS diet for 6 wk, weight gain remained lower in HF versus HP rats (45 ± 6 g; 57 ± 6 g; 64 ± 4 g respectively in HF, C, and HP; p = 0.07). In females, the lower weight gain that occurred during wk 3 to wk 14 and during HFHS feeding was not significantly different from C and HP. Energy intake was higher in HP males compared to HF and C at 12 wk of age (p = 0.02, Figure 2A). HF rats had lower energy intake at 14 and 16 wk compared to C and HP and lower than HP at wk 20 (p < 0.05). In females, energy intake was lower in HF rats at wk 12 compared to C (p = 0.05, Figure 2B) and lower than HP rats at 14 and 20 wk (p < 0.05). HP rats had high energy intake at 16 and 18 wk compared to C and HF rats (p = 0.04).

Bottom Line: Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT.Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT.HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, T2N 4Z6, Canada. reimer@ucalgary.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood.

Methods: At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C), high prebiotic fiber (HF) or high protein (HP) diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS) diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR.

Results: Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF.

Conclusion: These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus