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Differential protein expression in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae: underlying caste differentiation.

Li J, Wu J, Begna Rundassa D, Song F, Zheng A, Fang Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein.This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Department of Beekeeping and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) exhibits divisions in both morphology and reproduction. The queen is larger in size and fully developed sexually, while the worker bees are smaller in size and nearly infertile. To better understand the specific time and underlying molecular mechanisms of caste differentiation, the proteomic profiles of larvae intended to grow into queen and worker castes were compared at 72 and 120 hours using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), network, enrichment and quantitative PCR analysis. There were significant differences in protein expression between the two larvae castes at 72 and 120 hours, suggesting the queen and the worker larvae have already decided their fate before 72 hours. Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein. This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. Functional enrichment analysis suggests that carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and anti-oxidation proteins play major roles in the formation of caste divergence. The constructed network and validated gene expression identified target proteins for further functional study. This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

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Network analysis of all the pathways and interactions connected to all of the identified proteins.Those highlighted in blue represent the key node proteins identified in this study and validated by the network software program. Protein entities which belong to distinct functional groups were represented as different shapes according to the default settings of the software as described in the legend.
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pone-0013455-g006: Network analysis of all the pathways and interactions connected to all of the identified proteins.Those highlighted in blue represent the key node proteins identified in this study and validated by the network software program. Protein entities which belong to distinct functional groups were represented as different shapes according to the default settings of the software as described in the legend.

Mentions: In a living cell proteins perform their functions not as a single entity but rather work together in the context of networks. We analyzed all of the pathways and interactions connected to each of the identified proteins hoping to find the possible key node proteins during the larval development using pathway studio software. As a result, 23 proteins classified into 6 functional groups were linked in the network based on diverse linkage relationships like protein-protein interactions, modifications and regulation of expression (Figure 6). Based on the protein functional group, most proteins presented in the network (30%) were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, namely, aldehyde dehydrogenase (cg3752), aldehyde reductase (fdh), ATP synthase beta subunit (atpsynbata), Bellwether (blw), enolase (eno), phosphoglycerate mutase (pglym87) and transketolase (cg8036). Proteins involved in development processes were the second most represented (20%) and comprise Leonardo (14-3-3 zeta), 14-3-3 protein epsilon (14-3-3 epsilon), actin-87E isoform 2 (Ptx1), cathepsin D (cathd), imaginal disc growth factor 4 (idgf4) and lethal (2)37 (l(2)37cc). Proteins involved in metabolizing amino acid accounted for 9% that included proteasome subunit alpha type 5 (prosma5), arginine kinase (argk), and 4% fat acid metabolism, (fatty acid binding protein, rfabp). As the 2nd most represented protein in the functional enrichments (13%), antioxidant proteins comprised peroxiredoxin 2540 (prx2540-2), glutathione S transferase S1 (gsts1) and thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (jafrac1). Protein folding was also the 3rd represented (9%) functional term in the network linked through heat shock protein 8 (Hsc70-1) and ERp60 (erp60). Whereas, nutritional storage and transcription/translation proteins were networked by larval serum protein 2 (Lsp2) and translational controlled tumor protein (cg33057), respectively (Figure 6).


Differential protein expression in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae: underlying caste differentiation.

Li J, Wu J, Begna Rundassa D, Song F, Zheng A, Fang Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Network analysis of all the pathways and interactions connected to all of the identified proteins.Those highlighted in blue represent the key node proteins identified in this study and validated by the network software program. Protein entities which belong to distinct functional groups were represented as different shapes according to the default settings of the software as described in the legend.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2958119&req=5

pone-0013455-g006: Network analysis of all the pathways and interactions connected to all of the identified proteins.Those highlighted in blue represent the key node proteins identified in this study and validated by the network software program. Protein entities which belong to distinct functional groups were represented as different shapes according to the default settings of the software as described in the legend.
Mentions: In a living cell proteins perform their functions not as a single entity but rather work together in the context of networks. We analyzed all of the pathways and interactions connected to each of the identified proteins hoping to find the possible key node proteins during the larval development using pathway studio software. As a result, 23 proteins classified into 6 functional groups were linked in the network based on diverse linkage relationships like protein-protein interactions, modifications and regulation of expression (Figure 6). Based on the protein functional group, most proteins presented in the network (30%) were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, namely, aldehyde dehydrogenase (cg3752), aldehyde reductase (fdh), ATP synthase beta subunit (atpsynbata), Bellwether (blw), enolase (eno), phosphoglycerate mutase (pglym87) and transketolase (cg8036). Proteins involved in development processes were the second most represented (20%) and comprise Leonardo (14-3-3 zeta), 14-3-3 protein epsilon (14-3-3 epsilon), actin-87E isoform 2 (Ptx1), cathepsin D (cathd), imaginal disc growth factor 4 (idgf4) and lethal (2)37 (l(2)37cc). Proteins involved in metabolizing amino acid accounted for 9% that included proteasome subunit alpha type 5 (prosma5), arginine kinase (argk), and 4% fat acid metabolism, (fatty acid binding protein, rfabp). As the 2nd most represented protein in the functional enrichments (13%), antioxidant proteins comprised peroxiredoxin 2540 (prx2540-2), glutathione S transferase S1 (gsts1) and thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (jafrac1). Protein folding was also the 3rd represented (9%) functional term in the network linked through heat shock protein 8 (Hsc70-1) and ERp60 (erp60). Whereas, nutritional storage and transcription/translation proteins were networked by larval serum protein 2 (Lsp2) and translational controlled tumor protein (cg33057), respectively (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein.This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Department of Beekeeping and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) exhibits divisions in both morphology and reproduction. The queen is larger in size and fully developed sexually, while the worker bees are smaller in size and nearly infertile. To better understand the specific time and underlying molecular mechanisms of caste differentiation, the proteomic profiles of larvae intended to grow into queen and worker castes were compared at 72 and 120 hours using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), network, enrichment and quantitative PCR analysis. There were significant differences in protein expression between the two larvae castes at 72 and 120 hours, suggesting the queen and the worker larvae have already decided their fate before 72 hours. Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein. This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. Functional enrichment analysis suggests that carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and anti-oxidation proteins play major roles in the formation of caste divergence. The constructed network and validated gene expression identified target proteins for further functional study. This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus