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Differential protein expression in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae: underlying caste differentiation.

Li J, Wu J, Begna Rundassa D, Song F, Zheng A, Fang Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein.This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Department of Beekeeping and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) exhibits divisions in both morphology and reproduction. The queen is larger in size and fully developed sexually, while the worker bees are smaller in size and nearly infertile. To better understand the specific time and underlying molecular mechanisms of caste differentiation, the proteomic profiles of larvae intended to grow into queen and worker castes were compared at 72 and 120 hours using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), network, enrichment and quantitative PCR analysis. There were significant differences in protein expression between the two larvae castes at 72 and 120 hours, suggesting the queen and the worker larvae have already decided their fate before 72 hours. Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein. This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. Functional enrichment analysis suggests that carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and anti-oxidation proteins play major roles in the formation of caste divergence. The constructed network and validated gene expression identified target proteins for further functional study. This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of protein expression levels in castes over 72 and 120 hours developmental stages, where the black bars denote the protein expression levels in queen larvae and grey bars denote the protein expression levels in worker larvae.An asterisk at the top of the bars indicates the existence of statistically significant differences in the expressional level.
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pone-0013455-g004: Comparison of protein expression levels in castes over 72 and 120 hours developmental stages, where the black bars denote the protein expression levels in queen larvae and grey bars denote the protein expression levels in worker larvae.An asterisk at the top of the bars indicates the existence of statistically significant differences in the expressional level.

Mentions: In addition to qualitative differential protein expression, the two larvae were also compared based on quantitative differential protein expression levels. As the two larvae upregulated some important proteins in common at both developmental stages, this method is particularly useful to support the results of the qualitative studies. Accordingly, the expression level for most of the functional classes at both developmental stages showed differences between the two larvae. There was over-expression in queen larvae at 72 hours in transketolase, aldehyde reductase, enolase, phosphoglycerate mutase, imaginal disc growth factor 4, proteasome subunit alpha type 5 and long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase as compared with the worker larvae. Likewise, worker destined larvae over-expressed ATP synthase ß subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate mutase, peroxiredoxin 2540, thioredoxin peroxidase 1, lethal (2)37, 14-3-3 protein epsilon and fatty acid binding protein (Figure 4). At 120 hours, queen larvae over-expressed phosphoglycerate mutase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, enolase, larval serum protein 1, ornithine aminotransferase precursor, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase, 14-3-3 protein epsilon, imaginal disc growth factor 4, glutathione S transferase S1, thioredoxin peroxidase 1, ERp60, heat shock protein 3 and translation controlled tumor protein as compared with the worker larvae. Worker larvae over-expressed larval serum protein 2, fatty acid binding protein, arginine kinase, cathepsin D, actin-87E isoform 2 and short chain dehydrogenase/reductase l as compared to the queen larvae (Figure 4).


Differential protein expression in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae: underlying caste differentiation.

Li J, Wu J, Begna Rundassa D, Song F, Zheng A, Fang Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Comparison of protein expression levels in castes over 72 and 120 hours developmental stages, where the black bars denote the protein expression levels in queen larvae and grey bars denote the protein expression levels in worker larvae.An asterisk at the top of the bars indicates the existence of statistically significant differences in the expressional level.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2958119&req=5

pone-0013455-g004: Comparison of protein expression levels in castes over 72 and 120 hours developmental stages, where the black bars denote the protein expression levels in queen larvae and grey bars denote the protein expression levels in worker larvae.An asterisk at the top of the bars indicates the existence of statistically significant differences in the expressional level.
Mentions: In addition to qualitative differential protein expression, the two larvae were also compared based on quantitative differential protein expression levels. As the two larvae upregulated some important proteins in common at both developmental stages, this method is particularly useful to support the results of the qualitative studies. Accordingly, the expression level for most of the functional classes at both developmental stages showed differences between the two larvae. There was over-expression in queen larvae at 72 hours in transketolase, aldehyde reductase, enolase, phosphoglycerate mutase, imaginal disc growth factor 4, proteasome subunit alpha type 5 and long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase as compared with the worker larvae. Likewise, worker destined larvae over-expressed ATP synthase ß subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate mutase, peroxiredoxin 2540, thioredoxin peroxidase 1, lethal (2)37, 14-3-3 protein epsilon and fatty acid binding protein (Figure 4). At 120 hours, queen larvae over-expressed phosphoglycerate mutase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, enolase, larval serum protein 1, ornithine aminotransferase precursor, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase, 14-3-3 protein epsilon, imaginal disc growth factor 4, glutathione S transferase S1, thioredoxin peroxidase 1, ERp60, heat shock protein 3 and translation controlled tumor protein as compared with the worker larvae. Worker larvae over-expressed larval serum protein 2, fatty acid binding protein, arginine kinase, cathepsin D, actin-87E isoform 2 and short chain dehydrogenase/reductase l as compared to the queen larvae (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein.This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Department of Beekeeping and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) exhibits divisions in both morphology and reproduction. The queen is larger in size and fully developed sexually, while the worker bees are smaller in size and nearly infertile. To better understand the specific time and underlying molecular mechanisms of caste differentiation, the proteomic profiles of larvae intended to grow into queen and worker castes were compared at 72 and 120 hours using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), network, enrichment and quantitative PCR analysis. There were significant differences in protein expression between the two larvae castes at 72 and 120 hours, suggesting the queen and the worker larvae have already decided their fate before 72 hours. Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein. This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. Functional enrichment analysis suggests that carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and anti-oxidation proteins play major roles in the formation of caste divergence. The constructed network and validated gene expression identified target proteins for further functional study. This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus