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Differential protein expression in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae: underlying caste differentiation.

Li J, Wu J, Begna Rundassa D, Song F, Zheng A, Fang Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein.This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Department of Beekeeping and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) exhibits divisions in both morphology and reproduction. The queen is larger in size and fully developed sexually, while the worker bees are smaller in size and nearly infertile. To better understand the specific time and underlying molecular mechanisms of caste differentiation, the proteomic profiles of larvae intended to grow into queen and worker castes were compared at 72 and 120 hours using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), network, enrichment and quantitative PCR analysis. There were significant differences in protein expression between the two larvae castes at 72 and 120 hours, suggesting the queen and the worker larvae have already decided their fate before 72 hours. Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein. This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. Functional enrichment analysis suggests that carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and anti-oxidation proteins play major roles in the formation of caste divergence. The constructed network and validated gene expression identified target proteins for further functional study. This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

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Functional distributions of the identified proteins from queen and worker larvae at 120 hours (Q 120 h and W 120 h) of developmental stage.The percentage of each functional group was obtained based on the calculated absolute number of proteins under each functional group subtracted from the totally number of identified proteins at 120 hours (table S4).
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pone-0013455-g003: Functional distributions of the identified proteins from queen and worker larvae at 120 hours (Q 120 h and W 120 h) of developmental stage.The percentage of each functional group was obtained based on the calculated absolute number of proteins under each functional group subtracted from the totally number of identified proteins at 120 hours (table S4).

Mentions: As shown in Figure 2, at 72 hours proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production were the most represented category and qualitatively the proportion was almost the same in both larvae castes. However, proteins involved in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, protein folding and transcription/translation showed qualitative differences. Proteins implicated in developmental related processes were present in equal proportions in both queen and worker larvae. Similarly at 120 hours, the proportional representations of different functional classes of the identified proteins showed variations over the two intended larvae castes. The representations of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production proteins in queen larvae remained constant as of the 72 hour developmental stages and drastically dropped in worker larvae (Figure 3).


Differential protein expression in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae: underlying caste differentiation.

Li J, Wu J, Begna Rundassa D, Song F, Zheng A, Fang Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Functional distributions of the identified proteins from queen and worker larvae at 120 hours (Q 120 h and W 120 h) of developmental stage.The percentage of each functional group was obtained based on the calculated absolute number of proteins under each functional group subtracted from the totally number of identified proteins at 120 hours (table S4).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2958119&req=5

pone-0013455-g003: Functional distributions of the identified proteins from queen and worker larvae at 120 hours (Q 120 h and W 120 h) of developmental stage.The percentage of each functional group was obtained based on the calculated absolute number of proteins under each functional group subtracted from the totally number of identified proteins at 120 hours (table S4).
Mentions: As shown in Figure 2, at 72 hours proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production were the most represented category and qualitatively the proportion was almost the same in both larvae castes. However, proteins involved in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, protein folding and transcription/translation showed qualitative differences. Proteins implicated in developmental related processes were present in equal proportions in both queen and worker larvae. Similarly at 120 hours, the proportional representations of different functional classes of the identified proteins showed variations over the two intended larvae castes. The representations of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production proteins in queen larvae remained constant as of the 72 hour developmental stages and drastically dropped in worker larvae (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein.This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Department of Beekeeping and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) exhibits divisions in both morphology and reproduction. The queen is larger in size and fully developed sexually, while the worker bees are smaller in size and nearly infertile. To better understand the specific time and underlying molecular mechanisms of caste differentiation, the proteomic profiles of larvae intended to grow into queen and worker castes were compared at 72 and 120 hours using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), network, enrichment and quantitative PCR analysis. There were significant differences in protein expression between the two larvae castes at 72 and 120 hours, suggesting the queen and the worker larvae have already decided their fate before 72 hours. Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein. This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. Functional enrichment analysis suggests that carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and anti-oxidation proteins play major roles in the formation of caste divergence. The constructed network and validated gene expression identified target proteins for further functional study. This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus