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Differential protein expression in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae: underlying caste differentiation.

Li J, Wu J, Begna Rundassa D, Song F, Zheng A, Fang Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein.This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Department of Beekeeping and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) exhibits divisions in both morphology and reproduction. The queen is larger in size and fully developed sexually, while the worker bees are smaller in size and nearly infertile. To better understand the specific time and underlying molecular mechanisms of caste differentiation, the proteomic profiles of larvae intended to grow into queen and worker castes were compared at 72 and 120 hours using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), network, enrichment and quantitative PCR analysis. There were significant differences in protein expression between the two larvae castes at 72 and 120 hours, suggesting the queen and the worker larvae have already decided their fate before 72 hours. Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein. This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. Functional enrichment analysis suggests that carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and anti-oxidation proteins play major roles in the formation of caste divergence. The constructed network and validated gene expression identified target proteins for further functional study. This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

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Proteome map of honeybee worker and queen larvae at developmental stages 72 hours (w 72 h and Q 72 h) and 120 hours (W 120 h and Q 120 h).2-DE separation was performed on IPG gel strips (17 cm, 3- 10L) followed by SDS-PAGE on a vertical slab gel (12%). Protein spots of known identity are marked with color codes, red indicating upregulated proteins and blue indicating down regulated.
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pone-0013455-g001: Proteome map of honeybee worker and queen larvae at developmental stages 72 hours (w 72 h and Q 72 h) and 120 hours (W 120 h and Q 120 h).2-DE separation was performed on IPG gel strips (17 cm, 3- 10L) followed by SDS-PAGE on a vertical slab gel (12%). Protein spots of known identity are marked with color codes, red indicating upregulated proteins and blue indicating down regulated.

Mentions: In order to investigate the involvement of critical primary proteins as well as to establish their influences in caste differentiation at an early post embryonic stage, proteomic profiles of queen and worker larvae were compared at 72 and 120 hours using 2-DE gels. In summary, a total of 288 and 259 protein spots were detected at 72 hours, and 274 and 236 protein spots at 120 hours in queen and worker larvae, respectively. Among these proteins, 59 spots at 72 hours and 51 spots at 120 hours were reproducibly detected with expression changing more than 2 fold between the two castes (p<0.05). Furthermore, at 72 hours 40 protein spots (worker 18 and queen 22) and at 120 hours 41 protein spots (worker 22 and queen 19) were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/MS for the queen and worker larvae, respectively. From all the identified proteins at 72 hours, 15 were upregulated in the worker larvae and 12 in the queen larvae, and likewise, at 120 hours 14 proteins were upregulated in the worker larvae and 19 in the queen larvae (Table S2, Figure 1).


Differential protein expression in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae: underlying caste differentiation.

Li J, Wu J, Begna Rundassa D, Song F, Zheng A, Fang Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Proteome map of honeybee worker and queen larvae at developmental stages 72 hours (w 72 h and Q 72 h) and 120 hours (W 120 h and Q 120 h).2-DE separation was performed on IPG gel strips (17 cm, 3- 10L) followed by SDS-PAGE on a vertical slab gel (12%). Protein spots of known identity are marked with color codes, red indicating upregulated proteins and blue indicating down regulated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2958119&req=5

pone-0013455-g001: Proteome map of honeybee worker and queen larvae at developmental stages 72 hours (w 72 h and Q 72 h) and 120 hours (W 120 h and Q 120 h).2-DE separation was performed on IPG gel strips (17 cm, 3- 10L) followed by SDS-PAGE on a vertical slab gel (12%). Protein spots of known identity are marked with color codes, red indicating upregulated proteins and blue indicating down regulated.
Mentions: In order to investigate the involvement of critical primary proteins as well as to establish their influences in caste differentiation at an early post embryonic stage, proteomic profiles of queen and worker larvae were compared at 72 and 120 hours using 2-DE gels. In summary, a total of 288 and 259 protein spots were detected at 72 hours, and 274 and 236 protein spots at 120 hours in queen and worker larvae, respectively. Among these proteins, 59 spots at 72 hours and 51 spots at 120 hours were reproducibly detected with expression changing more than 2 fold between the two castes (p<0.05). Furthermore, at 72 hours 40 protein spots (worker 18 and queen 22) and at 120 hours 41 protein spots (worker 22 and queen 19) were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/MS for the queen and worker larvae, respectively. From all the identified proteins at 72 hours, 15 were upregulated in the worker larvae and 12 in the queen larvae, and likewise, at 120 hours 14 proteins were upregulated in the worker larvae and 19 in the queen larvae (Table S2, Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein.This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Department of Beekeeping and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) exhibits divisions in both morphology and reproduction. The queen is larger in size and fully developed sexually, while the worker bees are smaller in size and nearly infertile. To better understand the specific time and underlying molecular mechanisms of caste differentiation, the proteomic profiles of larvae intended to grow into queen and worker castes were compared at 72 and 120 hours using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), network, enrichment and quantitative PCR analysis. There were significant differences in protein expression between the two larvae castes at 72 and 120 hours, suggesting the queen and the worker larvae have already decided their fate before 72 hours. Specifically, at 72 hours, queen intended larvae over-expressed transketolase, aldehyde reductase, and enolase proteins which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, imaginal disc growth factor 4 which is a developmental related protein, long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase and proteasome subunit alpha type 5 which metabolize fatty and amino acids, while worker intended larvae over-expressed ATP synthase beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase, thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and peroxiredoxin 2540, lethal (2) 37 and 14-3-3 protein epsilon, fatty acid binding protein, and translational controlled tumor protein. This differential protein expression between the two caste intended larvae was more pronounced at 120 hours, with particular significant differences in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. Functional enrichment analysis suggests that carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and anti-oxidation proteins play major roles in the formation of caste divergence. The constructed network and validated gene expression identified target proteins for further functional study. This new finding is in contrast to the existing notion that 72 hour old larvae has bipotential and can develop into either queen or worker based on epigenetics and can help us to gain new insight into the time of departure as well as caste trajectory influencing elements at the molecular level.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus