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Domestic animals and epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, Nepal.

Bhattarai NR, Van der Auwera G, Rijal S, Picado A, Speybroeck N, Khanal B, De Doncker S, Das ML, Ostyn B, Davies C, Coosemans M, Berkvens D, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2010)

Bottom Line: On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis.Data were georeferenced and entered into a geographic information system.The bivariate K-function results indicated spatial clustering of Leishmania spp.-positive persons and domestic animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

ABSTRACT
On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis. To determine possible reasons for its persistence during interepidemic periods, we mapped Leishmania infections among healthy persons and animals in an area of active VL transmission in Nepal. During 4 months (September 2007-February 2008), blood was collected from persons, goats, cows, and buffaloes in 1 village. Leishmania infections were determined by using PCR. We found infections among persons (6.1%), cows (5%), buffaloes (4%), and goats (16%). Data were georeferenced and entered into a geographic information system. The bivariate K-function results indicated spatial clustering of Leishmania spp.-positive persons and domestic animals. Classification tree analysis determined that among several possible risk factors for Leishmania infection among persons, proximity of Leishmania spp.-positive goats ranked first. Although our data do not necessarily mean that goats constitute a reservoir host of L. donovani, these observations indicate the need for further investigation of goats' possible role in VL transmission.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of sampled households and domestic animals, by visceral leishmaniasis status as determined by PCR, Dharan-17, Nepal, September 2007–February 2008.
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Figure 2: Distribution of sampled households and domestic animals, by visceral leishmaniasis status as determined by PCR, Dharan-17, Nepal, September 2007–February 2008.

Mentions: The study was conducted as part of the KALANET project, a community trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (www.kalanetproject.org) in the Terai region of eastern Nepal. In Nepal, each village is divided into several wards. For the KALANET project, 10 wards with active VL transmission were selected. Dharan-17 was 1 such ward; it is a periurban ward in the Dharan municipality, located in the foothills of the Mahabharata hills and along the bank of Sardu River. Dharan-17 covers ≈0.3 km2 (Figure 1) and has 515 inhabitants living in 105 households (Figure 2). A demographic survey conducted in July 2006 showed that 77% of households had at least 1 domestic animal (i.e., cow, goat, dog). Most cows, buffaloes, and goats were kept <10 m from the households at night, although a few goats were kept inside the house. VL was only recently reported in this periurban area; Dharan-17 has an average VL incidence rate of 1.61% per year (for 2004–2006). Furthermore, during a previous study conducted in 2006, we documented a higher rate of VL positivity by PCR among the healthy persons in Dharan-17 compared with those in the 9 other wards in the KALANET trial, possibly suggesting a high transmission rate (8). For a control area, we selected Dhankura-3 in Patlekhola. This ward is ≈60 km from Dharan-17, in a hilly area where no VL cases have yet been reported.


Domestic animals and epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, Nepal.

Bhattarai NR, Van der Auwera G, Rijal S, Picado A, Speybroeck N, Khanal B, De Doncker S, Das ML, Ostyn B, Davies C, Coosemans M, Berkvens D, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2010)

Distribution of sampled households and domestic animals, by visceral leishmaniasis status as determined by PCR, Dharan-17, Nepal, September 2007–February 2008.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2958000&req=5

Figure 2: Distribution of sampled households and domestic animals, by visceral leishmaniasis status as determined by PCR, Dharan-17, Nepal, September 2007–February 2008.
Mentions: The study was conducted as part of the KALANET project, a community trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (www.kalanetproject.org) in the Terai region of eastern Nepal. In Nepal, each village is divided into several wards. For the KALANET project, 10 wards with active VL transmission were selected. Dharan-17 was 1 such ward; it is a periurban ward in the Dharan municipality, located in the foothills of the Mahabharata hills and along the bank of Sardu River. Dharan-17 covers ≈0.3 km2 (Figure 1) and has 515 inhabitants living in 105 households (Figure 2). A demographic survey conducted in July 2006 showed that 77% of households had at least 1 domestic animal (i.e., cow, goat, dog). Most cows, buffaloes, and goats were kept <10 m from the households at night, although a few goats were kept inside the house. VL was only recently reported in this periurban area; Dharan-17 has an average VL incidence rate of 1.61% per year (for 2004–2006). Furthermore, during a previous study conducted in 2006, we documented a higher rate of VL positivity by PCR among the healthy persons in Dharan-17 compared with those in the 9 other wards in the KALANET trial, possibly suggesting a high transmission rate (8). For a control area, we selected Dhankura-3 in Patlekhola. This ward is ≈60 km from Dharan-17, in a hilly area where no VL cases have yet been reported.

Bottom Line: On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis.Data were georeferenced and entered into a geographic information system.The bivariate K-function results indicated spatial clustering of Leishmania spp.-positive persons and domestic animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

ABSTRACT
On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis. To determine possible reasons for its persistence during interepidemic periods, we mapped Leishmania infections among healthy persons and animals in an area of active VL transmission in Nepal. During 4 months (September 2007-February 2008), blood was collected from persons, goats, cows, and buffaloes in 1 village. Leishmania infections were determined by using PCR. We found infections among persons (6.1%), cows (5%), buffaloes (4%), and goats (16%). Data were georeferenced and entered into a geographic information system. The bivariate K-function results indicated spatial clustering of Leishmania spp.-positive persons and domestic animals. Classification tree analysis determined that among several possible risk factors for Leishmania infection among persons, proximity of Leishmania spp.-positive goats ranked first. Although our data do not necessarily mean that goats constitute a reservoir host of L. donovani, these observations indicate the need for further investigation of goats' possible role in VL transmission.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus