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Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 strains and recent outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region: comparative analysis of the VP1 and VP4 genes.

Cardosa MJ, Perera D, Brown BA, Cheon D, Chan HM, Chan KP, Cho H, McMinn P - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2003)

Bottom Line: This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002.The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3.HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia. janecardosa@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT
This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 and VP1 genes of recent HEV71 strains indicates that several genogroups of the virus have been circulating in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3. This outbreak was followed by large outbreaks in Taiwan in 1998, caused by genogroup C2, and in Perth (Western Australia) in 1999, where viruses belonging to genogroups B3 and C2 cocirculated. Singapore, Taiwan, and Sarawak had HEV71 epidemics in 2000, caused predominantly by viruses belonging to genogroup B4; however, large numbers of fatalities were observed only in Taiwan. HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.

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Phylogenetic relationships of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains belonging to genogroup C (21). Dendrogram shows the genetic relationships among 30 HEV71 strains belonging to genogroup C, based on the alignment of a partial VP1 (nucleotide positions 2442–3281) or complete VP1 (nucleotide positions 2442–3332) gene sequences. Details of the HEV71 strains included in the dendrogram are provided in Tables 2 and 3. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of nucleotide differences. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the dendrogram are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance. The VP1 nucleotide sequence of the prototype BrCr-CA-70 (30) was used as an outgroup in the analysis.
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Figure 6: Phylogenetic relationships of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains belonging to genogroup C (21). Dendrogram shows the genetic relationships among 30 HEV71 strains belonging to genogroup C, based on the alignment of a partial VP1 (nucleotide positions 2442–3281) or complete VP1 (nucleotide positions 2442–3332) gene sequences. Details of the HEV71 strains included in the dendrogram are provided in Tables 2 and 3. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of nucleotide differences. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the dendrogram are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance. The VP1 nucleotide sequence of the prototype BrCr-CA-70 (30) was used as an outgroup in the analysis.

Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis that uses VP4 gene sequences also confirms previous observations that the major strains circulating in the Taiwan outbreak of 1998 were from genogroup C, more specifically C2, following the nomenclature of Brown et al. (21) (Figure 5). The Taiwanese isolates of 1998 clustered closely together in a lineage related to C2 strains isolated in Japan in the previous year and to those causing severe neurologic disease in Perth in 1999. This finding is supported by VP1-based analysis of Taiwanese strains from 1998 (Figure 6). We also located in GenBank a number of VP4 gene sequences of strains isolated in the United Kingdom between 1997 and 1999. These strains formed a cluster within genogroup C2, together with strains from Japan and Australia during 1997 and 1999, respectively. In our previous VP1-based study, the Australian C2 genogroup strains isolated during 1999 formed two distinct lineages (22), which are reproduced in the VP4 analysis. Similarly, Japanese isolates from 1997 form distinct lineages within genogroup C2.


Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 strains and recent outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region: comparative analysis of the VP1 and VP4 genes.

Cardosa MJ, Perera D, Brown BA, Cheon D, Chan HM, Chan KP, Cho H, McMinn P - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2003)

Phylogenetic relationships of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains belonging to genogroup C (21). Dendrogram shows the genetic relationships among 30 HEV71 strains belonging to genogroup C, based on the alignment of a partial VP1 (nucleotide positions 2442–3281) or complete VP1 (nucleotide positions 2442–3332) gene sequences. Details of the HEV71 strains included in the dendrogram are provided in Tables 2 and 3. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of nucleotide differences. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the dendrogram are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance. The VP1 nucleotide sequence of the prototype BrCr-CA-70 (30) was used as an outgroup in the analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2957976&req=5

Figure 6: Phylogenetic relationships of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains belonging to genogroup C (21). Dendrogram shows the genetic relationships among 30 HEV71 strains belonging to genogroup C, based on the alignment of a partial VP1 (nucleotide positions 2442–3281) or complete VP1 (nucleotide positions 2442–3332) gene sequences. Details of the HEV71 strains included in the dendrogram are provided in Tables 2 and 3. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of nucleotide differences. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the dendrogram are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance. The VP1 nucleotide sequence of the prototype BrCr-CA-70 (30) was used as an outgroup in the analysis.
Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis that uses VP4 gene sequences also confirms previous observations that the major strains circulating in the Taiwan outbreak of 1998 were from genogroup C, more specifically C2, following the nomenclature of Brown et al. (21) (Figure 5). The Taiwanese isolates of 1998 clustered closely together in a lineage related to C2 strains isolated in Japan in the previous year and to those causing severe neurologic disease in Perth in 1999. This finding is supported by VP1-based analysis of Taiwanese strains from 1998 (Figure 6). We also located in GenBank a number of VP4 gene sequences of strains isolated in the United Kingdom between 1997 and 1999. These strains formed a cluster within genogroup C2, together with strains from Japan and Australia during 1997 and 1999, respectively. In our previous VP1-based study, the Australian C2 genogroup strains isolated during 1999 formed two distinct lineages (22), which are reproduced in the VP4 analysis. Similarly, Japanese isolates from 1997 form distinct lineages within genogroup C2.

Bottom Line: This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002.The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3.HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia. janecardosa@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT
This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 and VP1 genes of recent HEV71 strains indicates that several genogroups of the virus have been circulating in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3. This outbreak was followed by large outbreaks in Taiwan in 1998, caused by genogroup C2, and in Perth (Western Australia) in 1999, where viruses belonging to genogroups B3 and C2 cocirculated. Singapore, Taiwan, and Sarawak had HEV71 epidemics in 2000, caused predominantly by viruses belonging to genogroup B4; however, large numbers of fatalities were observed only in Taiwan. HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus