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Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 strains and recent outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region: comparative analysis of the VP1 and VP4 genes.

Cardosa MJ, Perera D, Brown BA, Cheon D, Chan HM, Chan KP, Cho H, McMinn P - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2003)

Bottom Line: This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002.The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3.HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia. janecardosa@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT
This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 and VP1 genes of recent HEV71 strains indicates that several genogroups of the virus have been circulating in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3. This outbreak was followed by large outbreaks in Taiwan in 1998, caused by genogroup C2, and in Perth (Western Australia) in 1999, where viruses belonging to genogroups B3 and C2 cocirculated. Singapore, Taiwan, and Sarawak had HEV71 epidemics in 2000, caused predominantly by viruses belonging to genogroup B4; however, large numbers of fatalities were observed only in Taiwan. HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

An overview of the genetic relationships of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains isolated from 1970 through 2002. Unrooted cladogram shows the genogroup relationships of HEV71 based on an alignment of the partial VP4 gene (nucleotide positions 744–950) consensus sequences for genogroups B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, and C3. The complete VP4 gene sequence of the prototype strain BrCr-CA-70 (30) was used as an outgroup in the analysis. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the dendrogram are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance.
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Figure 2: An overview of the genetic relationships of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains isolated from 1970 through 2002. Unrooted cladogram shows the genogroup relationships of HEV71 based on an alignment of the partial VP4 gene (nucleotide positions 744–950) consensus sequences for genogroups B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, and C3. The complete VP4 gene sequence of the prototype strain BrCr-CA-70 (30) was used as an outgroup in the analysis. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the dendrogram are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance.

Mentions: Figure 1 presents an overview of the VP4-based phylogenetic tree, generated by including representative members of each of the genogroups A, B, and C. While there are a few outliers, this comprehensive VP4-based dendrogram accurately reproduces the genogroup clusters B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, and C2 (21,22) supported by the bootstrap values indicated. However, the Korean isolates form a distinct cluster in genogroup C with high bootstrap support, which we have designated genogroup C3. Selected HEV71 strains from the collection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used to anchor the tree to maintain consistency of nomenclature between our VP4-based tree and the VP1-based tree published earlier by Brown et al. (21). The viruses in genogroups B and C share at least 78.3% nucleotide sequence identity. Within the B genogroup, the strains share at least 87.9% identity; the strains within the C genogroup share at least 84.5% identity. Overall, the C genogroup has greater diversity than the B genogroup. Within all subgenogroups, virus strains have >90% nucleotide sequence identity (Table 2). The divergence between genogroups A and B as well as A and C is 20% to 21%; the divergence between genogroups B and C is 16% to 25%. The strains in our collection from two of the more recently described genogroups B3 and C3 showed very high similarity to each other within the genogroup (>98% and 99% identity, respectively), while those within the B1 and C1 genogroups showed the widest divergence. The phylogenetic relationships between the consensus sequences of the different genogroups based on VP4 analysis are shown as an unrooted tree (Figure 2). This cladogram clearly illustrates that the C genogroup viruses are more divergent than the B genogroup viruses; however, because we might not have strains that are evenly distributed temporally and geographically, we were unable to determine if this difference in divergence means that genogroup B viruses have evolved more recently than the genogroup C viruses.


Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 strains and recent outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region: comparative analysis of the VP1 and VP4 genes.

Cardosa MJ, Perera D, Brown BA, Cheon D, Chan HM, Chan KP, Cho H, McMinn P - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2003)

An overview of the genetic relationships of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains isolated from 1970 through 2002. Unrooted cladogram shows the genogroup relationships of HEV71 based on an alignment of the partial VP4 gene (nucleotide positions 744–950) consensus sequences for genogroups B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, and C3. The complete VP4 gene sequence of the prototype strain BrCr-CA-70 (30) was used as an outgroup in the analysis. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the dendrogram are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2957976&req=5

Figure 2: An overview of the genetic relationships of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) strains isolated from 1970 through 2002. Unrooted cladogram shows the genogroup relationships of HEV71 based on an alignment of the partial VP4 gene (nucleotide positions 744–950) consensus sequences for genogroups B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, and C3. The complete VP4 gene sequence of the prototype strain BrCr-CA-70 (30) was used as an outgroup in the analysis. The bootstrap values in 1,000 pseudoreplicates for major lineages within the dendrogram are shown as percentages. The marker denotes a measurement of relative phylogenetic distance.
Mentions: Figure 1 presents an overview of the VP4-based phylogenetic tree, generated by including representative members of each of the genogroups A, B, and C. While there are a few outliers, this comprehensive VP4-based dendrogram accurately reproduces the genogroup clusters B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, and C2 (21,22) supported by the bootstrap values indicated. However, the Korean isolates form a distinct cluster in genogroup C with high bootstrap support, which we have designated genogroup C3. Selected HEV71 strains from the collection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used to anchor the tree to maintain consistency of nomenclature between our VP4-based tree and the VP1-based tree published earlier by Brown et al. (21). The viruses in genogroups B and C share at least 78.3% nucleotide sequence identity. Within the B genogroup, the strains share at least 87.9% identity; the strains within the C genogroup share at least 84.5% identity. Overall, the C genogroup has greater diversity than the B genogroup. Within all subgenogroups, virus strains have >90% nucleotide sequence identity (Table 2). The divergence between genogroups A and B as well as A and C is 20% to 21%; the divergence between genogroups B and C is 16% to 25%. The strains in our collection from two of the more recently described genogroups B3 and C3 showed very high similarity to each other within the genogroup (>98% and 99% identity, respectively), while those within the B1 and C1 genogroups showed the widest divergence. The phylogenetic relationships between the consensus sequences of the different genogroups based on VP4 analysis are shown as an unrooted tree (Figure 2). This cladogram clearly illustrates that the C genogroup viruses are more divergent than the B genogroup viruses; however, because we might not have strains that are evenly distributed temporally and geographically, we were unable to determine if this difference in divergence means that genogroup B viruses have evolved more recently than the genogroup C viruses.

Bottom Line: This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002.The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3.HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia. janecardosa@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT
This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 and VP1 genes of recent HEV71 strains indicates that several genogroups of the virus have been circulating in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3. This outbreak was followed by large outbreaks in Taiwan in 1998, caused by genogroup C2, and in Perth (Western Australia) in 1999, where viruses belonging to genogroups B3 and C2 cocirculated. Singapore, Taiwan, and Sarawak had HEV71 epidemics in 2000, caused predominantly by viruses belonging to genogroup B4; however, large numbers of fatalities were observed only in Taiwan. HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus