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Dietary iodine: why are so many mothers not getting enough?

Renner R - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

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Maternal iodine deficiency has been associated with a number of adverse effects on the infant brain resulting in a continuum of effects depending on the degree of iodine deficiency, from lowered IQ to severe mental retardation... The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones, which in turn direct brain development... Insufficient iodine is considered the leading cause of preventable mental retardation in the world, and iodine deficiency in pregnant women has been estimated to result in the loss of some 10–15 IQ points at the global population level... Switzerland, with centuries of serious iodine deficiency, introduced iodized salt in 1922, two years before the U.S. FDA... Data from NHANES 2003–2004 showed that 37.2% of pregnant women sampled had urinary iodine values below 100 μg/L, the lower cutoff of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for the general population of 100–199 μg/L... Known goitrogens include perchlorate (found in food and drinking water), nitrate (also found in food and drinking water), and thiocyanate (found in cigarette smoke and in cabbage, brussels sprouts, and other cruciferous vegetables)... In a 2006 analysis of NHANES data, researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that for women with lower urinary iodine levels, higher levels of urinary perchlorate were associated with decreases in the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)—a relationship that would be expected if perchlorate were inhibiting iodine uptake enough to interfere with thyroid hormone production... Infants with urinary iodine under 100 μg/L and higher urine perchlorate levels tended to have higher TSH, although they did not have lower T4—possibly because a clear relation between higher T4 and lower TSH may not yet be well developed in infants... The authors also found a relationship between urinary iodine and thiocyanate, and thiocyanate also was more strongly related to TSH than perchlorate... For vitamins in which the iodine source was potassium iodide, the mean measured iodine content was about 119 μg, or 79% of the labeled value—roughly the percentage of iodine that makes up potassium iodide... Dasgupta, who in unpublished studies has found similar results using different analytical methods, says this could mean manufacturers erroneously believe that 150 μg potassium iodide is equivalent to 150 μg iodine... He coordinated a 2007 meeting sponsored by the WHO to discuss the joint goals of reducing hypertension and reducing iodine deficiencies... Participants at the meeting concluded that promoting iodized salt does not conflict with recommending reduced salt intake. “Salt intake should be five grams a day or less, but all salt consumed should be iodized,” says Zimmermann... Sullivan and Pearce agree. “There is a need in the United States to reduce overall salt intake.

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Fortification of foods such as salt has been shown to be an effective way to ensure pregnant women get adequate iodine, a critical nutrient for proper brain growth. But dietary and food production shifts in the past few decades have resulted in dramatically decreased population levels of iodine, with potentially devastating effects for babies of iodine-deficient mothers.
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f1-ehp-118-a438: Fortification of foods such as salt has been shown to be an effective way to ensure pregnant women get adequate iodine, a critical nutrient for proper brain growth. But dietary and food production shifts in the past few decades have resulted in dramatically decreased population levels of iodine, with potentially devastating effects for babies of iodine-deficient mothers.


Dietary iodine: why are so many mothers not getting enough?

Renner R - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

Fortification of foods such as salt has been shown to be an effective way to ensure pregnant women get adequate iodine, a critical nutrient for proper brain growth. But dietary and food production shifts in the past few decades have resulted in dramatically decreased population levels of iodine, with potentially devastating effects for babies of iodine-deficient mothers.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2957951&req=5

f1-ehp-118-a438: Fortification of foods such as salt has been shown to be an effective way to ensure pregnant women get adequate iodine, a critical nutrient for proper brain growth. But dietary and food production shifts in the past few decades have resulted in dramatically decreased population levels of iodine, with potentially devastating effects for babies of iodine-deficient mothers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Maternal iodine deficiency has been associated with a number of adverse effects on the infant brain resulting in a continuum of effects depending on the degree of iodine deficiency, from lowered IQ to severe mental retardation... The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones, which in turn direct brain development... Insufficient iodine is considered the leading cause of preventable mental retardation in the world, and iodine deficiency in pregnant women has been estimated to result in the loss of some 10–15 IQ points at the global population level... Switzerland, with centuries of serious iodine deficiency, introduced iodized salt in 1922, two years before the U.S. FDA... Data from NHANES 2003–2004 showed that 37.2% of pregnant women sampled had urinary iodine values below 100 μg/L, the lower cutoff of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for the general population of 100–199 μg/L... Known goitrogens include perchlorate (found in food and drinking water), nitrate (also found in food and drinking water), and thiocyanate (found in cigarette smoke and in cabbage, brussels sprouts, and other cruciferous vegetables)... In a 2006 analysis of NHANES data, researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that for women with lower urinary iodine levels, higher levels of urinary perchlorate were associated with decreases in the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)—a relationship that would be expected if perchlorate were inhibiting iodine uptake enough to interfere with thyroid hormone production... Infants with urinary iodine under 100 μg/L and higher urine perchlorate levels tended to have higher TSH, although they did not have lower T4—possibly because a clear relation between higher T4 and lower TSH may not yet be well developed in infants... The authors also found a relationship between urinary iodine and thiocyanate, and thiocyanate also was more strongly related to TSH than perchlorate... For vitamins in which the iodine source was potassium iodide, the mean measured iodine content was about 119 μg, or 79% of the labeled value—roughly the percentage of iodine that makes up potassium iodide... Dasgupta, who in unpublished studies has found similar results using different analytical methods, says this could mean manufacturers erroneously believe that 150 μg potassium iodide is equivalent to 150 μg iodine... He coordinated a 2007 meeting sponsored by the WHO to discuss the joint goals of reducing hypertension and reducing iodine deficiencies... Participants at the meeting concluded that promoting iodized salt does not conflict with recommending reduced salt intake. “Salt intake should be five grams a day or less, but all salt consumed should be iodized,” says Zimmermann... Sullivan and Pearce agree. “There is a need in the United States to reduce overall salt intake.

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