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Dietary iodine: why are so many mothers not getting enough?

Renner R - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

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Maternal iodine deficiency has been associated with a number of adverse effects on the infant brain resulting in a continuum of effects depending on the degree of iodine deficiency, from lowered IQ to severe mental retardation... The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones, which in turn direct brain development... Insufficient iodine is considered the leading cause of preventable mental retardation in the world, and iodine deficiency in pregnant women has been estimated to result in the loss of some 10–15 IQ points at the global population level... Data collected over the last 30 years through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) suggest iodine levels in the U.S. population, particularly among women of childbearing age, may be getting too low, according to epidemiologist Kevin Sullivan of Emory University... The good news is that, in the past, concerted efforts to ensure adequate iodine intake have yielded beneficial effects... Switzerland, with centuries of serious iodine deficiency, introduced iodized salt in 1922, two years before the U.S. FDA... Data from NHANES 2003–2004 showed that 37.2% of pregnant women sampled had urinary iodine values below 100 μg/L, the lower cutoff of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for the general population of 100–199 μg/L... These included nonpregnant, nonlactating women aged 40–44 and various groups of pregnant women (women aged 15–19 years, women aged 30–39 years, women in the non-Hispanic white and other racial/ethnic group, and those who did not consume dairy products, which are one of the chief dietary sources of iodine)... The authors concluded that iodine nutrition among U.S. women of reproductive age has stablized since NHANES III (1988–1994) but that the iodine status of pregnant women overall hovers just above the cutoff for iodine sufficiency... Salt producers decide whether to iodize salt on the basis of customer specifications, says Hannemann... And there are many misconceptions about the use of iodized salt in food industries, according to Arnold Timmer, a nutrition project officer for the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). “Some producers think it changes the taste or color of the food, and they do not want to take the risk,” he said in a 2006 UNICEF news article. “However,” he continued, “many food producers have been using iodized salt for a very long time without any problem. ” A 1995 study corroborated that iodized salt used in typical amounts does not affect the taste or color of foods... For vitamins in which the iodine source was potassium iodide, the mean measured iodine content was about 119 μg, or 79% of the labeled value—roughly the percentage of iodine that makes up potassium iodide... Dasgupta, who in unpublished studies has found similar results using different analytical methods, says this could mean manufacturers erroneously believe that 150 μg potassium iodide is equivalent to 150 μg iodine... He coordinated a 2007 meeting sponsored by the WHO to discuss the joint goals of reducing hypertension and reducing iodine deficiencies... Participants at the meeting concluded that promoting iodized salt does not conflict with recommending reduced salt intake. “Salt intake should be five grams a day or less, but all salt consumed should be iodized,” says Zimmermann.

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Fortification of foods such as salt has been shown to be an effective way to ensure pregnant women get adequate iodine, a critical nutrient for proper brain growth. But dietary and food production shifts in the past few decades have resulted in dramatically decreased population levels of iodine, with potentially devastating effects for babies of iodine-deficient mothers.
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f1-ehp-118-a438: Fortification of foods such as salt has been shown to be an effective way to ensure pregnant women get adequate iodine, a critical nutrient for proper brain growth. But dietary and food production shifts in the past few decades have resulted in dramatically decreased population levels of iodine, with potentially devastating effects for babies of iodine-deficient mothers.


Dietary iodine: why are so many mothers not getting enough?

Renner R - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

Fortification of foods such as salt has been shown to be an effective way to ensure pregnant women get adequate iodine, a critical nutrient for proper brain growth. But dietary and food production shifts in the past few decades have resulted in dramatically decreased population levels of iodine, with potentially devastating effects for babies of iodine-deficient mothers.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2957951&req=5

f1-ehp-118-a438: Fortification of foods such as salt has been shown to be an effective way to ensure pregnant women get adequate iodine, a critical nutrient for proper brain growth. But dietary and food production shifts in the past few decades have resulted in dramatically decreased population levels of iodine, with potentially devastating effects for babies of iodine-deficient mothers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Maternal iodine deficiency has been associated with a number of adverse effects on the infant brain resulting in a continuum of effects depending on the degree of iodine deficiency, from lowered IQ to severe mental retardation... The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones, which in turn direct brain development... Insufficient iodine is considered the leading cause of preventable mental retardation in the world, and iodine deficiency in pregnant women has been estimated to result in the loss of some 10–15 IQ points at the global population level... Data collected over the last 30 years through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) suggest iodine levels in the U.S. population, particularly among women of childbearing age, may be getting too low, according to epidemiologist Kevin Sullivan of Emory University... The good news is that, in the past, concerted efforts to ensure adequate iodine intake have yielded beneficial effects... Switzerland, with centuries of serious iodine deficiency, introduced iodized salt in 1922, two years before the U.S. FDA... Data from NHANES 2003–2004 showed that 37.2% of pregnant women sampled had urinary iodine values below 100 μg/L, the lower cutoff of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for the general population of 100–199 μg/L... These included nonpregnant, nonlactating women aged 40–44 and various groups of pregnant women (women aged 15–19 years, women aged 30–39 years, women in the non-Hispanic white and other racial/ethnic group, and those who did not consume dairy products, which are one of the chief dietary sources of iodine)... The authors concluded that iodine nutrition among U.S. women of reproductive age has stablized since NHANES III (1988–1994) but that the iodine status of pregnant women overall hovers just above the cutoff for iodine sufficiency... Salt producers decide whether to iodize salt on the basis of customer specifications, says Hannemann... And there are many misconceptions about the use of iodized salt in food industries, according to Arnold Timmer, a nutrition project officer for the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). “Some producers think it changes the taste or color of the food, and they do not want to take the risk,” he said in a 2006 UNICEF news article. “However,” he continued, “many food producers have been using iodized salt for a very long time without any problem. ” A 1995 study corroborated that iodized salt used in typical amounts does not affect the taste or color of foods... For vitamins in which the iodine source was potassium iodide, the mean measured iodine content was about 119 μg, or 79% of the labeled value—roughly the percentage of iodine that makes up potassium iodide... Dasgupta, who in unpublished studies has found similar results using different analytical methods, says this could mean manufacturers erroneously believe that 150 μg potassium iodide is equivalent to 150 μg iodine... He coordinated a 2007 meeting sponsored by the WHO to discuss the joint goals of reducing hypertension and reducing iodine deficiencies... Participants at the meeting concluded that promoting iodized salt does not conflict with recommending reduced salt intake. “Salt intake should be five grams a day or less, but all salt consumed should be iodized,” says Zimmermann.

Show MeSH