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The artificial food dye blues.

Potera C - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

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In 2008 the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) in Washington, DC, petitioned the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ban artificial food dyes because of their connection to behavioral problems in children... Two years later a new CSPI report, Food Dyes: A Rainbow of Risks, further concludes that the nine artificial dyes approved in the United States likely are carcinogenic, cause hypersensitivity reactions and behavioral problems, or are inadequately tested... Artificial dyes derived from petroleum are found in thousands of foods... For its report CSPI reviewed published studies and “found some surprises,” says Jacobson... For example, most chemical carcinogenicity studies use relatively small numbers of animals, do not include in utero exposures, and last two years, the rodent equivalent of about 65 human years... Because cancers may not show up until a rodent’s third year of life, corresponding to the time when cancers also are more likely to appear in humans, the two-year time frame for standard bioassays may reduce the likelihood a carcinogenic chemical will be identified, says James Huff, associate director for chemical carcinogenesis at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6 contain benzidene, a human and animal carcinogen permitted in low, presumably safe levels in dyes... Bound benzidene also has been detected in dyes in much greater amounts than free benzidene,, but routine FDA tests measure only free contaminants, overlooking the bound moiety... Intestinal enzymes release bound benzidene, “so we could be exposed to vastly greater amounts of carcinogens than FDA’s routine tests indicate,” says Jacobson—especially considering today’s children are exposed to multiple dyes and flavoring agents and other added chemicals in foods... Allen of the FDA Office of Public Affairs did say, “We appreciate the report from CSPI and are reviewing it... We take our commitment to protecting children seriously. ” In a statement released after the publication of A Rainbow of Risks, the International Association of Color Manufacturers highlighted its adherence to current FDA protocols, noting, “The FDA has repeatedly stated that these colors are safe based on the available safety data. ” Food manufacturers still use plant-based colorings in some countries... Weiss argued 30 years ago there was evidence linking artificial food dyes to behavioral problems in children... Yet the FDA still does not require manufacturers to test dyes for developmental neurotoxicity. “Their inaction amounts to approval of an ongoing experiment with children,” Weiss says.

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Artificial dyes are not the only way to create brightly colored foods; many countries use vegetable-based dyes (see sample wares in the inset) to achieve the same effect.
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f1-ehp-118-a428: Artificial dyes are not the only way to create brightly colored foods; many countries use vegetable-based dyes (see sample wares in the inset) to achieve the same effect.


The artificial food dye blues.

Potera C - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

Artificial dyes are not the only way to create brightly colored foods; many countries use vegetable-based dyes (see sample wares in the inset) to achieve the same effect.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2957945&req=5

f1-ehp-118-a428: Artificial dyes are not the only way to create brightly colored foods; many countries use vegetable-based dyes (see sample wares in the inset) to achieve the same effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

In 2008 the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) in Washington, DC, petitioned the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ban artificial food dyes because of their connection to behavioral problems in children... Two years later a new CSPI report, Food Dyes: A Rainbow of Risks, further concludes that the nine artificial dyes approved in the United States likely are carcinogenic, cause hypersensitivity reactions and behavioral problems, or are inadequately tested... Artificial dyes derived from petroleum are found in thousands of foods... For its report CSPI reviewed published studies and “found some surprises,” says Jacobson... For example, most chemical carcinogenicity studies use relatively small numbers of animals, do not include in utero exposures, and last two years, the rodent equivalent of about 65 human years... Because cancers may not show up until a rodent’s third year of life, corresponding to the time when cancers also are more likely to appear in humans, the two-year time frame for standard bioassays may reduce the likelihood a carcinogenic chemical will be identified, says James Huff, associate director for chemical carcinogenesis at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6 contain benzidene, a human and animal carcinogen permitted in low, presumably safe levels in dyes... Bound benzidene also has been detected in dyes in much greater amounts than free benzidene,, but routine FDA tests measure only free contaminants, overlooking the bound moiety... Intestinal enzymes release bound benzidene, “so we could be exposed to vastly greater amounts of carcinogens than FDA’s routine tests indicate,” says Jacobson—especially considering today’s children are exposed to multiple dyes and flavoring agents and other added chemicals in foods... Allen of the FDA Office of Public Affairs did say, “We appreciate the report from CSPI and are reviewing it... We take our commitment to protecting children seriously. ” In a statement released after the publication of A Rainbow of Risks, the International Association of Color Manufacturers highlighted its adherence to current FDA protocols, noting, “The FDA has repeatedly stated that these colors are safe based on the available safety data. ” Food manufacturers still use plant-based colorings in some countries... Weiss argued 30 years ago there was evidence linking artificial food dyes to behavioral problems in children... Yet the FDA still does not require manufacturers to test dyes for developmental neurotoxicity. “Their inaction amounts to approval of an ongoing experiment with children,” Weiss says.

Show MeSH