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Serum concentrations of antibodies against vaccine toxoids in children exposed perinatally to immunotoxicants.

Heilmann C, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Nielsen F, Heinzow B, Weihe P, Grandjean P - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

Bottom Line: Results obtained 2 years later showed an inverse association of concentrations of antibodies against both toxoids with PCB concentrations at 18 months of age.At age 5 years, the odds of an antidiphtheria antibody concentration below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/L increased by about 30% for a doubling in PCB in milk and 18-month serum.Developmental PCB exposure is associated with immunotoxic effects on serum concentrations of specific antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Paediatric Clinic II, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may cause immunotoxic effects, but the detailed dose-response relationship and possible vulnerable time windows of exposure are uncertain. In this study we applied serum concentrations of specific antibodies against childhood vaccines as sentinels of immunotoxicity.

Objectives: The main objective was to assess the possible dependence of antibody concentrations against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in children with regard to prenatal and postnatal PCB exposures.

Methods: From a cohort of 656 singleton births formed in the Faroe Islands during 1999-2001, children were invited for examination with assessment of serum antibody concentrations at 5 years (before and after a booster vaccination) and at 7 years of age. Total PCB concentrations were determined in serum from ages 5 and 7 years, and data were also available on PCB concentrations in maternal pregnancy serum, maternal milk, and, for a subgroup, the child's serum at 18 months of age.

Results: A total of 587 children participated in the examinations at ages 5 and/or 7 years. At age 5 years, before the booster vaccination, the antidiphtheria antibody concentration was inversely associated with PCB concentrations in milk and 18-month serum. Results obtained 2 years later showed an inverse association of concentrations of antibodies against both toxoids with PCB concentrations at 18 months of age. The strongest associations suggested a decrease in the antibody concentration by about 20% for each doubling in PCB exposure. At age 5 years, the odds of an antidiphtheria antibody concentration below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/L increased by about 30% for a doubling in PCB in milk and 18-month serum.

Conclusions: Developmental PCB exposure is associated with immunotoxic effects on serum concentrations of specific antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations. The immune system development during the first years of life appears to be particularly vulnerable to this exposure.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Time-dependent change in serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria in 455 Faroese children after booster vaccination at age 5 years, as modeled by a cubic spline function adjusted for sex, age, and booster type. Results are shown for girls at age 5.2 years inoculated with a booster without additional vaccines.
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f1-ehp-118-1434: Time-dependent change in serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria in 455 Faroese children after booster vaccination at age 5 years, as modeled by a cubic spline function adjusted for sex, age, and booster type. Results are shown for girls at age 5.2 years inoculated with a booster without additional vaccines.

Mentions: Serum antibody concentrations after the 5-year booster vaccination varied according to the time interval between the booster vaccination and serum collection (Figure 1). Five children had a negative interval (i.e., they were examined before the booster vaccination) and were therefore excluded from the analysis of post-booster antibody concentrations. A cubic spline function was used for adjustment of the data used in these regression analyses. Each of the two newer booster vaccinations that included additional vaccines were associated with lower antibody responses for both tetanus and diphtheria (p < 0.05); adjustment for the booster type was therefore also included in these models as well as for the 7-year data.


Serum concentrations of antibodies against vaccine toxoids in children exposed perinatally to immunotoxicants.

Heilmann C, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Nielsen F, Heinzow B, Weihe P, Grandjean P - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

Time-dependent change in serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria in 455 Faroese children after booster vaccination at age 5 years, as modeled by a cubic spline function adjusted for sex, age, and booster type. Results are shown for girls at age 5.2 years inoculated with a booster without additional vaccines.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2957925&req=5

f1-ehp-118-1434: Time-dependent change in serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria in 455 Faroese children after booster vaccination at age 5 years, as modeled by a cubic spline function adjusted for sex, age, and booster type. Results are shown for girls at age 5.2 years inoculated with a booster without additional vaccines.
Mentions: Serum antibody concentrations after the 5-year booster vaccination varied according to the time interval between the booster vaccination and serum collection (Figure 1). Five children had a negative interval (i.e., they were examined before the booster vaccination) and were therefore excluded from the analysis of post-booster antibody concentrations. A cubic spline function was used for adjustment of the data used in these regression analyses. Each of the two newer booster vaccinations that included additional vaccines were associated with lower antibody responses for both tetanus and diphtheria (p < 0.05); adjustment for the booster type was therefore also included in these models as well as for the 7-year data.

Bottom Line: Results obtained 2 years later showed an inverse association of concentrations of antibodies against both toxoids with PCB concentrations at 18 months of age.At age 5 years, the odds of an antidiphtheria antibody concentration below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/L increased by about 30% for a doubling in PCB in milk and 18-month serum.Developmental PCB exposure is associated with immunotoxic effects on serum concentrations of specific antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Paediatric Clinic II, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may cause immunotoxic effects, but the detailed dose-response relationship and possible vulnerable time windows of exposure are uncertain. In this study we applied serum concentrations of specific antibodies against childhood vaccines as sentinels of immunotoxicity.

Objectives: The main objective was to assess the possible dependence of antibody concentrations against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in children with regard to prenatal and postnatal PCB exposures.

Methods: From a cohort of 656 singleton births formed in the Faroe Islands during 1999-2001, children were invited for examination with assessment of serum antibody concentrations at 5 years (before and after a booster vaccination) and at 7 years of age. Total PCB concentrations were determined in serum from ages 5 and 7 years, and data were also available on PCB concentrations in maternal pregnancy serum, maternal milk, and, for a subgroup, the child's serum at 18 months of age.

Results: A total of 587 children participated in the examinations at ages 5 and/or 7 years. At age 5 years, before the booster vaccination, the antidiphtheria antibody concentration was inversely associated with PCB concentrations in milk and 18-month serum. Results obtained 2 years later showed an inverse association of concentrations of antibodies against both toxoids with PCB concentrations at 18 months of age. The strongest associations suggested a decrease in the antibody concentration by about 20% for each doubling in PCB exposure. At age 5 years, the odds of an antidiphtheria antibody concentration below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/L increased by about 30% for a doubling in PCB in milk and 18-month serum.

Conclusions: Developmental PCB exposure is associated with immunotoxic effects on serum concentrations of specific antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations. The immune system development during the first years of life appears to be particularly vulnerable to this exposure.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus