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Particulate air pollution, metabolic syndrome, and heart rate variability: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).

Park SK, Auchincloss AH, O'Neill MS, Prineas R, Correa JC, Keeler J, Barr RG, Kaufman JD, Diez Roux AV - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

Bottom Line: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to measure the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) of 5,465 participants 45-84 years old who were free of CVD at the baseline examination (2000-2002).After controlling for confounders, we found that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 2-day average PM2.5 (10.2 µg/m3) was associated with a 2.1% decrease in rMSSD [95% confidence interval (CI), -4.2 to 0.0] and nonsignificantly associated with a 1.8% decrease in SDNN (95% CI, -3.7 to 0.1).Similar effect modification was observed in SDNN (p-interaction = 0.011).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. sungkyun@umich.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiac autonomic dysfunction has been suggested as a possible biologic pathway for the association between fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the associations of PM2.5 with heart rate variability, a marker of autonomic function, and whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) modified these associations.

Methods: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to measure the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) of 5,465 participants 45-84 years old who were free of CVD at the baseline examination (2000-2002). Data from the U.S. regulatory monitor network were used to estimate ambient PM2.5 concentrations at the participants' residences. MetS was defined as having three or more of the following criteria: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose.

Results: After controlling for confounders, we found that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 2-day average PM2.5 (10.2 µg/m3) was associated with a 2.1% decrease in rMSSD [95% confidence interval (CI), -4.2 to 0.0] and nonsignificantly associated with a 1.8% decrease in SDNN (95% CI, -3.7 to 0.1). Associations were stronger among individuals with MetS than among those without MetS: an IQR elevation in 2-day PM2.5 was associated with a 6.2% decrease in rMSSD (95% CI, -9.4 to -2.9) among participants with MetS, whereas almost no change was found among participants without MetS (p-interaction = 0.005). Similar effect modification was observed in SDNN (p-interaction = 0.011).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that autonomic dysfunction may be a mechanism through which PM exposure affects cardiovascular risk, especially among persons with MetS.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Adjusted percent changes and 95% CIs in HRV measures for an IQR increase in PM2.5 (10.2 μg/m3) by MetS and its components (abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), MESA, 2000–2002. The adjusted covariates are the same as in Model 2, Table 3, except for the covariates that are part of each effect modifier: The model for MetS did not include BMI, fasting glucose, mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum triglyceride, and cardiac medications (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors); the model for abdominal obesity did not include BMI; the model for diabetes did not include fasting glucose; the model for hypertension did not include mean arterial pressure and cardiac medications; and the model for dyslipidemia did not include serum triglyceride.
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f1-ehp-118-1406: Adjusted percent changes and 95% CIs in HRV measures for an IQR increase in PM2.5 (10.2 μg/m3) by MetS and its components (abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), MESA, 2000–2002. The adjusted covariates are the same as in Model 2, Table 3, except for the covariates that are part of each effect modifier: The model for MetS did not include BMI, fasting glucose, mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum triglyceride, and cardiac medications (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors); the model for abdominal obesity did not include BMI; the model for diabetes did not include fasting glucose; the model for hypertension did not include mean arterial pressure and cardiac medications; and the model for dyslipidemia did not include serum triglyceride.

Mentions: Figure 1 shows results for effect modification by MetS and its individual components in association between HRV and 2-day average of PM2.5. We found statistically significant effect modification by MetS. One IQR increase in 2-day PM2.5 was significantly associated with 5.16% (95% CI, 2.13–8.10) and 6.16% (95% CI, 2.85–9.35) decreases in SDNN and rMSSD, respectively, among persons with MetS, whereas no relationship was found among persons without MetS (p-values for interaction = 0.011 for SDNN and 0.005 for rMSSD). We also found significant associations of PM2.5 and rMSSD among persons with abdominal obesity, diabetes, or hypertension, but no significant associations were observed among persons without those conditions. The interaction terms between PM2.5 and each individual component of MetS in each model were not statistically significant. We also examined effect modification by sex, education, cigarette smoking, cardiac medication (beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers), and statin use, but no significant effect modification was observed (data not shown).


Particulate air pollution, metabolic syndrome, and heart rate variability: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).

Park SK, Auchincloss AH, O'Neill MS, Prineas R, Correa JC, Keeler J, Barr RG, Kaufman JD, Diez Roux AV - Environ. Health Perspect. (2010)

Adjusted percent changes and 95% CIs in HRV measures for an IQR increase in PM2.5 (10.2 μg/m3) by MetS and its components (abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), MESA, 2000–2002. The adjusted covariates are the same as in Model 2, Table 3, except for the covariates that are part of each effect modifier: The model for MetS did not include BMI, fasting glucose, mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum triglyceride, and cardiac medications (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors); the model for abdominal obesity did not include BMI; the model for diabetes did not include fasting glucose; the model for hypertension did not include mean arterial pressure and cardiac medications; and the model for dyslipidemia did not include serum triglyceride.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2957920&req=5

f1-ehp-118-1406: Adjusted percent changes and 95% CIs in HRV measures for an IQR increase in PM2.5 (10.2 μg/m3) by MetS and its components (abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), MESA, 2000–2002. The adjusted covariates are the same as in Model 2, Table 3, except for the covariates that are part of each effect modifier: The model for MetS did not include BMI, fasting glucose, mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum triglyceride, and cardiac medications (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors); the model for abdominal obesity did not include BMI; the model for diabetes did not include fasting glucose; the model for hypertension did not include mean arterial pressure and cardiac medications; and the model for dyslipidemia did not include serum triglyceride.
Mentions: Figure 1 shows results for effect modification by MetS and its individual components in association between HRV and 2-day average of PM2.5. We found statistically significant effect modification by MetS. One IQR increase in 2-day PM2.5 was significantly associated with 5.16% (95% CI, 2.13–8.10) and 6.16% (95% CI, 2.85–9.35) decreases in SDNN and rMSSD, respectively, among persons with MetS, whereas no relationship was found among persons without MetS (p-values for interaction = 0.011 for SDNN and 0.005 for rMSSD). We also found significant associations of PM2.5 and rMSSD among persons with abdominal obesity, diabetes, or hypertension, but no significant associations were observed among persons without those conditions. The interaction terms between PM2.5 and each individual component of MetS in each model were not statistically significant. We also examined effect modification by sex, education, cigarette smoking, cardiac medication (beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers), and statin use, but no significant effect modification was observed (data not shown).

Bottom Line: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to measure the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) of 5,465 participants 45-84 years old who were free of CVD at the baseline examination (2000-2002).After controlling for confounders, we found that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 2-day average PM2.5 (10.2 µg/m3) was associated with a 2.1% decrease in rMSSD [95% confidence interval (CI), -4.2 to 0.0] and nonsignificantly associated with a 1.8% decrease in SDNN (95% CI, -3.7 to 0.1).Similar effect modification was observed in SDNN (p-interaction = 0.011).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. sungkyun@umich.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiac autonomic dysfunction has been suggested as a possible biologic pathway for the association between fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the associations of PM2.5 with heart rate variability, a marker of autonomic function, and whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) modified these associations.

Methods: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to measure the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) of 5,465 participants 45-84 years old who were free of CVD at the baseline examination (2000-2002). Data from the U.S. regulatory monitor network were used to estimate ambient PM2.5 concentrations at the participants' residences. MetS was defined as having three or more of the following criteria: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose.

Results: After controlling for confounders, we found that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 2-day average PM2.5 (10.2 µg/m3) was associated with a 2.1% decrease in rMSSD [95% confidence interval (CI), -4.2 to 0.0] and nonsignificantly associated with a 1.8% decrease in SDNN (95% CI, -3.7 to 0.1). Associations were stronger among individuals with MetS than among those without MetS: an IQR elevation in 2-day PM2.5 was associated with a 6.2% decrease in rMSSD (95% CI, -9.4 to -2.9) among participants with MetS, whereas almost no change was found among participants without MetS (p-interaction = 0.005). Similar effect modification was observed in SDNN (p-interaction = 0.011).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that autonomic dysfunction may be a mechanism through which PM exposure affects cardiovascular risk, especially among persons with MetS.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus