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Technical and social evaluation of arsenic mitigation in rural Bangladesh.

Shafiquzzaman M, Azam MS, Mishima I, Nakajima J - J Health Popul Nutr (2009)

Bottom Line: These results indicate that the implementation approaches of the sono arsenic filter suffered from lack of ownership and long-term sustainability.Willingness of households to pay (about 30%) and preference of household filter (50%) suggest the need to develop a low-cost household arsenic filter.Development of community-based organization would be also necessary to implement a long-term, sustainable plan for household-based technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, I-I-I Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan. shafiq@se.ritsumei.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Technical and social performances of an arsenic-removal technology--the sono arsenic filter--in rural areas of Bangladesh were investigated. Results of arsenic field-test showed that filtered water met the Bangladesh standard (< 50 microg/L) after two years of continuous use. A questionnaire was administrated among 198 sono arsenic filter-user and 230 non-user families. Seventy-two percent of filters (n = 198) were working at the time of the survey. Another 28% of the filters were abandoned due to breakage. The abandonment percentage (28%) was lower than other mitigation options currently implemented in Bangladesh. Households were reluctant to repair the broken filters on their own. High cost, problems with maintenance of filters, weak sludge-disposal guidance, and slow flow rate were the other demerits of the filter. These results indicate that the implementation approaches of the sono arsenic filter suffered from lack of ownership and long-term sustainability. Continuous use of arsenic-contaminated tubewells by the non-user households demonstrated the lack of alternative water supply in the survey area. Willingness of households to pay (about 30%) and preference of household filter (50%) suggest the need to develop a low-cost household arsenic filter. Development of community-based organization would be also necessary to implement a long-term, sustainable plan for household-based technology.

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Previously-used technologies and reason for abandoning in the NU group (n=68)
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Figure 4: Previously-used technologies and reason for abandoning in the NU group (n=68)

Mentions: Some households in the NU group had some experience with some arsenic-removal technologies or alternative arsenic-free safe water options. They, however, stopped using the technologies or options for many reasons. Figure 4 shows the arsenic- removal technologies or options previously used by the households and the reason of abandoning them. Of the 205 respondents in the NU group, 56 had used SAFs, and 34 households had used DTWs. Of them, 68 households had explained the reasons. Forty-seven households stopped using SAFs because the filters had broken. Five households had difficulty to collect water from DTWs, which were far from their house. Another five households stopped using DTWs after getting SAFs. High cost, low filtration rate, and the filter-clogging problem were the reasons for abandoning the technologies by another 11 households.


Technical and social evaluation of arsenic mitigation in rural Bangladesh.

Shafiquzzaman M, Azam MS, Mishima I, Nakajima J - J Health Popul Nutr (2009)

Previously-used technologies and reason for abandoning in the NU group (n=68)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2928078&req=5

Figure 4: Previously-used technologies and reason for abandoning in the NU group (n=68)
Mentions: Some households in the NU group had some experience with some arsenic-removal technologies or alternative arsenic-free safe water options. They, however, stopped using the technologies or options for many reasons. Figure 4 shows the arsenic- removal technologies or options previously used by the households and the reason of abandoning them. Of the 205 respondents in the NU group, 56 had used SAFs, and 34 households had used DTWs. Of them, 68 households had explained the reasons. Forty-seven households stopped using SAFs because the filters had broken. Five households had difficulty to collect water from DTWs, which were far from their house. Another five households stopped using DTWs after getting SAFs. High cost, low filtration rate, and the filter-clogging problem were the reasons for abandoning the technologies by another 11 households.

Bottom Line: These results indicate that the implementation approaches of the sono arsenic filter suffered from lack of ownership and long-term sustainability.Willingness of households to pay (about 30%) and preference of household filter (50%) suggest the need to develop a low-cost household arsenic filter.Development of community-based organization would be also necessary to implement a long-term, sustainable plan for household-based technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, I-I-I Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan. shafiq@se.ritsumei.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Technical and social performances of an arsenic-removal technology--the sono arsenic filter--in rural areas of Bangladesh were investigated. Results of arsenic field-test showed that filtered water met the Bangladesh standard (< 50 microg/L) after two years of continuous use. A questionnaire was administrated among 198 sono arsenic filter-user and 230 non-user families. Seventy-two percent of filters (n = 198) were working at the time of the survey. Another 28% of the filters were abandoned due to breakage. The abandonment percentage (28%) was lower than other mitigation options currently implemented in Bangladesh. Households were reluctant to repair the broken filters on their own. High cost, problems with maintenance of filters, weak sludge-disposal guidance, and slow flow rate were the other demerits of the filter. These results indicate that the implementation approaches of the sono arsenic filter suffered from lack of ownership and long-term sustainability. Continuous use of arsenic-contaminated tubewells by the non-user households demonstrated the lack of alternative water supply in the survey area. Willingness of households to pay (about 30%) and preference of household filter (50%) suggest the need to develop a low-cost household arsenic filter. Development of community-based organization would be also necessary to implement a long-term, sustainable plan for household-based technology.

Show MeSH