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Technical and social evaluation of arsenic mitigation in rural Bangladesh.

Shafiquzzaman M, Azam MS, Mishima I, Nakajima J - J Health Popul Nutr (2009)

Bottom Line: These results indicate that the implementation approaches of the sono arsenic filter suffered from lack of ownership and long-term sustainability.Willingness of households to pay (about 30%) and preference of household filter (50%) suggest the need to develop a low-cost household arsenic filter.Development of community-based organization would be also necessary to implement a long-term, sustainable plan for household-based technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, I-I-I Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan. shafiq@se.ritsumei.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Technical and social performances of an arsenic-removal technology--the sono arsenic filter--in rural areas of Bangladesh were investigated. Results of arsenic field-test showed that filtered water met the Bangladesh standard (< 50 microg/L) after two years of continuous use. A questionnaire was administrated among 198 sono arsenic filter-user and 230 non-user families. Seventy-two percent of filters (n = 198) were working at the time of the survey. Another 28% of the filters were abandoned due to breakage. The abandonment percentage (28%) was lower than other mitigation options currently implemented in Bangladesh. Households were reluctant to repair the broken filters on their own. High cost, problems with maintenance of filters, weak sludge-disposal guidance, and slow flow rate were the other demerits of the filter. These results indicate that the implementation approaches of the sono arsenic filter suffered from lack of ownership and long-term sustainability. Continuous use of arsenic-contaminated tubewells by the non-user households demonstrated the lack of alternative water supply in the survey area. Willingness of households to pay (about 30%) and preference of household filter (50%) suggest the need to develop a low-cost household arsenic filter. Development of community-based organization would be also necessary to implement a long-term, sustainable plan for household-based technology.

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Arsenic-removal performance of SAF after 2 years of continuous use (n=41)
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Figure 3: Arsenic-removal performance of SAF after 2 years of continuous use (n=41)

Mentions: Figure 3 shows the arsenic-removal data for 41 SAFs monitored in 2006, when most of these monitored filters had been in operation for two years or more. Concentration of arsenic in treated water was reduced to 14±10 µg/L, from an average of 200 µg/L in tubewell water. The average arsenic-removal efficiency was about 93%. One hundred percent of the filters produced water within the Bangladesh standard of 50 µg/L, and 50% met the WHO standard of 10 µg/L (15). These results demonstrate that the SAF was very efficient and effective during two-year arsenic-removal performance.


Technical and social evaluation of arsenic mitigation in rural Bangladesh.

Shafiquzzaman M, Azam MS, Mishima I, Nakajima J - J Health Popul Nutr (2009)

Arsenic-removal performance of SAF after 2 years of continuous use (n=41)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2928078&req=5

Figure 3: Arsenic-removal performance of SAF after 2 years of continuous use (n=41)
Mentions: Figure 3 shows the arsenic-removal data for 41 SAFs monitored in 2006, when most of these monitored filters had been in operation for two years or more. Concentration of arsenic in treated water was reduced to 14±10 µg/L, from an average of 200 µg/L in tubewell water. The average arsenic-removal efficiency was about 93%. One hundred percent of the filters produced water within the Bangladesh standard of 50 µg/L, and 50% met the WHO standard of 10 µg/L (15). These results demonstrate that the SAF was very efficient and effective during two-year arsenic-removal performance.

Bottom Line: These results indicate that the implementation approaches of the sono arsenic filter suffered from lack of ownership and long-term sustainability.Willingness of households to pay (about 30%) and preference of household filter (50%) suggest the need to develop a low-cost household arsenic filter.Development of community-based organization would be also necessary to implement a long-term, sustainable plan for household-based technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, I-I-I Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan. shafiq@se.ritsumei.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Technical and social performances of an arsenic-removal technology--the sono arsenic filter--in rural areas of Bangladesh were investigated. Results of arsenic field-test showed that filtered water met the Bangladesh standard (< 50 microg/L) after two years of continuous use. A questionnaire was administrated among 198 sono arsenic filter-user and 230 non-user families. Seventy-two percent of filters (n = 198) were working at the time of the survey. Another 28% of the filters were abandoned due to breakage. The abandonment percentage (28%) was lower than other mitigation options currently implemented in Bangladesh. Households were reluctant to repair the broken filters on their own. High cost, problems with maintenance of filters, weak sludge-disposal guidance, and slow flow rate were the other demerits of the filter. These results indicate that the implementation approaches of the sono arsenic filter suffered from lack of ownership and long-term sustainability. Continuous use of arsenic-contaminated tubewells by the non-user households demonstrated the lack of alternative water supply in the survey area. Willingness of households to pay (about 30%) and preference of household filter (50%) suggest the need to develop a low-cost household arsenic filter. Development of community-based organization would be also necessary to implement a long-term, sustainable plan for household-based technology.

Show MeSH