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Cellularity and adipogenic profile of the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese adolescents: association with insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis.

Kursawe R, Eszlinger M, Narayan D, Liu T, Bazuine M, Cali AM, D'Adamo E, Shaw M, Pierpont B, Shulman GI, Cushman SW, Sherman A, Caprio S - Diabetes (2010)

Bottom Line: The cell-size distribution curves were significantly different between the high and low VAT/(VAT+SAT) groups, even after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (MANOVA P = 0.035).Surprisingly, the fraction of large adipocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), along with the estimated total number of large adipose cells (P < 0.05), while the mean diameter was increased (P < 0.01).A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: We explored whether the distribution of adipose cell size, the estimated total number of adipose cells, and the expression of adipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue are linked to the phenotype of high visceral and low subcutaneous fat depots in obese adolescents.

Research design and methods: A total of 38 adolescents with similar degrees of obesity agreed to have a subcutaneous periumbilical adipose tissue biopsy, in addition to metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) and imaging studies (MRI, DEXA, (1)H-NMR). Subcutaneous periumbilical adipose cell-size distribution and the estimated total number of subcutaneous adipose cells were obtained from tissue biopsy samples fixed in osmium tetroxide and analyzed by Beckman Coulter Multisizer. The adipogenic capacity was measured by Affymetrix GeneChip and quantitative RT-PCR.

Results: Subjects were divided into two groups: high versus low ratio of visceral to visceral + subcutaneous fat (VAT/[VAT+SAT]). The cell-size distribution curves were significantly different between the high and low VAT/(VAT+SAT) groups, even after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (MANOVA P = 0.035). Surprisingly, the fraction of large adipocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), along with the estimated total number of large adipose cells (P < 0.05), while the mean diameter was increased (P < 0.01). From the microarray analyses emerged a lower expression of lipogenesis/adipogenesis markers (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), which was confirmed by RT-PCR.

Conclusions: A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

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Schematic representation of the proposed interactions among size of the subcutaneous fat depot, adipogenesis/lipogenesis, and cell size in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, plasma lipid level, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. (A high-quality digital representation of this figure is available in the online issue.)
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Figure 5: Schematic representation of the proposed interactions among size of the subcutaneous fat depot, adipogenesis/lipogenesis, and cell size in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, plasma lipid level, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. (A high-quality digital representation of this figure is available in the online issue.)

Mentions: The cellularity and, more importantly, the decreased adipogenic and lipogenic profiles profoundly affect the ability of subcutaneous fat to expand (Fig. 5). Lipogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue is turned down, while the amount of plasma free fatty acids rises. The overflow in lipids leads to ectopic fat deposition in the visceral depot and the liver, which in turn leads to an impaired function of the target organ and to insulin resistance.


Cellularity and adipogenic profile of the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese adolescents: association with insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis.

Kursawe R, Eszlinger M, Narayan D, Liu T, Bazuine M, Cali AM, D'Adamo E, Shaw M, Pierpont B, Shulman GI, Cushman SW, Sherman A, Caprio S - Diabetes (2010)

Schematic representation of the proposed interactions among size of the subcutaneous fat depot, adipogenesis/lipogenesis, and cell size in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, plasma lipid level, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. (A high-quality digital representation of this figure is available in the online issue.)
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2927952&req=5

Figure 5: Schematic representation of the proposed interactions among size of the subcutaneous fat depot, adipogenesis/lipogenesis, and cell size in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, plasma lipid level, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. (A high-quality digital representation of this figure is available in the online issue.)
Mentions: The cellularity and, more importantly, the decreased adipogenic and lipogenic profiles profoundly affect the ability of subcutaneous fat to expand (Fig. 5). Lipogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue is turned down, while the amount of plasma free fatty acids rises. The overflow in lipids leads to ectopic fat deposition in the visceral depot and the liver, which in turn leads to an impaired function of the target organ and to insulin resistance.

Bottom Line: The cell-size distribution curves were significantly different between the high and low VAT/(VAT+SAT) groups, even after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (MANOVA P = 0.035).Surprisingly, the fraction of large adipocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), along with the estimated total number of large adipose cells (P < 0.05), while the mean diameter was increased (P < 0.01).A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: We explored whether the distribution of adipose cell size, the estimated total number of adipose cells, and the expression of adipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue are linked to the phenotype of high visceral and low subcutaneous fat depots in obese adolescents.

Research design and methods: A total of 38 adolescents with similar degrees of obesity agreed to have a subcutaneous periumbilical adipose tissue biopsy, in addition to metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) and imaging studies (MRI, DEXA, (1)H-NMR). Subcutaneous periumbilical adipose cell-size distribution and the estimated total number of subcutaneous adipose cells were obtained from tissue biopsy samples fixed in osmium tetroxide and analyzed by Beckman Coulter Multisizer. The adipogenic capacity was measured by Affymetrix GeneChip and quantitative RT-PCR.

Results: Subjects were divided into two groups: high versus low ratio of visceral to visceral + subcutaneous fat (VAT/[VAT+SAT]). The cell-size distribution curves were significantly different between the high and low VAT/(VAT+SAT) groups, even after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (MANOVA P = 0.035). Surprisingly, the fraction of large adipocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), along with the estimated total number of large adipose cells (P < 0.05), while the mean diameter was increased (P < 0.01). From the microarray analyses emerged a lower expression of lipogenesis/adipogenesis markers (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), which was confirmed by RT-PCR.

Conclusions: A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus