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Predictable patterns of trait mismatches between interacting plants and insects.

Anderson B, Terblanche JS, Ellis AG - BMC Evol. Biol. (2010)

Bottom Line: This result held at the population level, as well as for phylogenetically adjusted analyses at the species-level and for both pollination and host-parasite interactions, perhaps suggesting a general pattern.Similarly, plant mating system also affected the degree of trait correspondence because selfing reduces the reliance on pollinators and is analogous to pollination generalization.Our analyses suggest that there are predictable "winners" and "losers" of evolutionary arms races and the results of this study highlight the fact that breeding system and the degree of specialization can influence the outcome.

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Affiliation: Plant Animal Interactions, Botany and Zoology Department, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. banderso.bruce@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: There are few predictions about the directionality or extent of morphological trait (mis)matches between interacting organisms. We review and analyse studies on morphological trait complementarity (e.g. floral tube length versus insect mouthpart length) at the population and species level.

Results: Plants have consistently more exaggerated morphological traits than insects at high trait magnitudes and in some cases less exaggerated traits than insects at smaller trait magnitudes. This result held at the population level, as well as for phylogenetically adjusted analyses at the species-level and for both pollination and host-parasite interactions, perhaps suggesting a general pattern. Across communities, the degree of trait mismatch between one specialist plant and its more generalized pollinator was related to the level of pollinator specialization at each site; the observed pattern supports the "life-dinner principle" of selection acting more strongly on species with more at stake in the interaction. Similarly, plant mating system also affected the degree of trait correspondence because selfing reduces the reliance on pollinators and is analogous to pollination generalization.

Conclusions: Our analyses suggest that there are predictable "winners" and "losers" of evolutionary arms races and the results of this study highlight the fact that breeding system and the degree of specialization can influence the outcome.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of plant breeding system on the magnitude of trait-matching slopes. RMA regression slopes of pollinator tongue or leg morphology against the tube length of obligate insect pollinated plants (clear squares and dotted line) and plants capable of autonomous selfing (solid circles and solid line). Note that the axes have been changed in this analysis because we are testing whether tube length is dependent on plant mating system. P-values refer to tests against a slope of 0.
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Figure 5: The effect of plant breeding system on the magnitude of trait-matching slopes. RMA regression slopes of pollinator tongue or leg morphology against the tube length of obligate insect pollinated plants (clear squares and dotted line) and plants capable of autonomous selfing (solid circles and solid line). Note that the axes have been changed in this analysis because we are testing whether tube length is dependent on plant mating system. P-values refer to tests against a slope of 0.

Mentions: Using RMA, we found that the mean slope for pollinator-dependent plants was 1.255 ± 0.036 (±SD), (Figure 5). In contrast, the regression slope for autonomous selfers was 1.000 ± 0.121 (±SD), (Figure 5). Slopes were very similar using OLS (results not shown). However, there was a significant interaction effect of autogamous versus pollinator-dependent plants on the steepness of the pollinator-plant trait length slope (Wald χ2 = 5.187, df = 1, p = 0.02), with the slope for pollinator-dependent plants being steeper than for autonomous selfers, meaning that pollinator-dependent plants had more exaggerated morphological traits at high values than plants which were able to self pollinate.


Predictable patterns of trait mismatches between interacting plants and insects.

Anderson B, Terblanche JS, Ellis AG - BMC Evol. Biol. (2010)

The effect of plant breeding system on the magnitude of trait-matching slopes. RMA regression slopes of pollinator tongue or leg morphology against the tube length of obligate insect pollinated plants (clear squares and dotted line) and plants capable of autonomous selfing (solid circles and solid line). Note that the axes have been changed in this analysis because we are testing whether tube length is dependent on plant mating system. P-values refer to tests against a slope of 0.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2927919&req=5

Figure 5: The effect of plant breeding system on the magnitude of trait-matching slopes. RMA regression slopes of pollinator tongue or leg morphology against the tube length of obligate insect pollinated plants (clear squares and dotted line) and plants capable of autonomous selfing (solid circles and solid line). Note that the axes have been changed in this analysis because we are testing whether tube length is dependent on plant mating system. P-values refer to tests against a slope of 0.
Mentions: Using RMA, we found that the mean slope for pollinator-dependent plants was 1.255 ± 0.036 (±SD), (Figure 5). In contrast, the regression slope for autonomous selfers was 1.000 ± 0.121 (±SD), (Figure 5). Slopes were very similar using OLS (results not shown). However, there was a significant interaction effect of autogamous versus pollinator-dependent plants on the steepness of the pollinator-plant trait length slope (Wald χ2 = 5.187, df = 1, p = 0.02), with the slope for pollinator-dependent plants being steeper than for autonomous selfers, meaning that pollinator-dependent plants had more exaggerated morphological traits at high values than plants which were able to self pollinate.

Bottom Line: This result held at the population level, as well as for phylogenetically adjusted analyses at the species-level and for both pollination and host-parasite interactions, perhaps suggesting a general pattern.Similarly, plant mating system also affected the degree of trait correspondence because selfing reduces the reliance on pollinators and is analogous to pollination generalization.Our analyses suggest that there are predictable "winners" and "losers" of evolutionary arms races and the results of this study highlight the fact that breeding system and the degree of specialization can influence the outcome.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Animal Interactions, Botany and Zoology Department, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. banderso.bruce@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: There are few predictions about the directionality or extent of morphological trait (mis)matches between interacting organisms. We review and analyse studies on morphological trait complementarity (e.g. floral tube length versus insect mouthpart length) at the population and species level.

Results: Plants have consistently more exaggerated morphological traits than insects at high trait magnitudes and in some cases less exaggerated traits than insects at smaller trait magnitudes. This result held at the population level, as well as for phylogenetically adjusted analyses at the species-level and for both pollination and host-parasite interactions, perhaps suggesting a general pattern. Across communities, the degree of trait mismatch between one specialist plant and its more generalized pollinator was related to the level of pollinator specialization at each site; the observed pattern supports the "life-dinner principle" of selection acting more strongly on species with more at stake in the interaction. Similarly, plant mating system also affected the degree of trait correspondence because selfing reduces the reliance on pollinators and is analogous to pollination generalization.

Conclusions: Our analyses suggest that there are predictable "winners" and "losers" of evolutionary arms races and the results of this study highlight the fact that breeding system and the degree of specialization can influence the outcome.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus