Keeping in touch with contact inhibition of locomotion.
Bottom Line: Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact with another cell.Here, we revisit the concept that CIL plays a central role in the migration of single cells and in collective migration, during both health and disease.Finally, we propose possible cell surface proteins that could be involved in the initial contact that regulates Rho GTPases during CIL.
Affiliation: Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. firstname.lastname@example.orgShow MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: In multicellular organisms, cells often move in groups rather than as singular cells. Cell migration in loosely or closely associated groups has been called collective cell migration (reviewed in Refs [12,13,26]). Collective cell migration is now a widely recognized mode of migration during embryogenesis and cancer. Both collective cell migrations and CIL are defined by the ability of cells to interact with their neighbours during migration and it is probable that these two processes are linked. There is a wide variety of collective cell migration, from sheets of migrating cells found in carcinomas and in head mesoderm of amphibian embryos (Figure 2a, [6,27,28]), to closely associated clusters of cells such as the migration of the lateral line in zebrafish, border cells in Drosophila embryos or melanomas (Figure 2b, [29,30]). Other cells are organized in chains such as Drosophila myoblasts or squamous cell carcinoma (Figure 2c, [31,32]). Another example of this is the migration of endothelial cells during sprouting in angiogenesis, in which inhibition of cell protrusion between the cells and presence of large lamellipodia and filopodia in the leader cells has been compared to CIL . Another mode of collective cell migration has been called streaming (Figure 2d), and has been found in the migration of neural crest cells, mammalian endoderm and possibly in some breast carcinomas [9,15,34,35]. In this type of migration, the cells move as a loose cluster in which individual cells can be identified but are constantly interacting with each other. Interestingly, it has been shown that during neural crest migration, an example of cell streaming, cells make local and transient contacts which are required for CIL [9,15].
Affiliation: Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. email@example.com